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99 Cards in this Set

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Personal protection in the lab:
Personal protection in the lab:

gloves, mask, and apron if necessay
How long should you rinse your eyes if splashed with chemicals?:
How long should you rinse your eyes if splashed with chemicals?:

5-10 minutes
What is the most common cause of lab error?:
What is the most common cause of lab error?:

human error
Rules of a blood smear:
Rules of a blood smear:

Never force blood back through the needle when placing a drop onto a slide when doing a smear - this may crush cells and make is difficult to decipher healthy cells from abnormal cells

Once the slide has been made, the first thing to do is to scan the smear on low power to determine the thinnest and most visible area to count cells

Blood on film smears should be created using anticoagulated whole blood
What is the purpose of the fixer solution in staining a blood smear?
What is the purpose of the fixer solution in staining a blood smear?

to adhere the smeared substanceo to the slide so that it is not washed away during further staining
What is a hand held refractometer used for?
What is a hand held refractometer used for?

to determine plasma protein levels and reads specific gavity of urine
What is the best solution to use when calibrating the refractomer?
What is the best solution to use when calibrating the refractomer?

distilled water
What are the stacked coin-like appearance of erthrocytes, sometimes seen in horses called?
What are the stacked coin-like appearance of erthrocytes, sometimes seen in horses called?

Rouleaux
Blood chemistry test
Blood chemistry test

Includes 25 blood chemistry tests

Lipase and amylase are included in a blood chemistry test in order to test the function of the pancreas.
BUN
BUN

(Blood uria nitrgoen) and creatnine are included in a chemistry profile in order to evaluate kidney function
When submitting a blood sample for a total general health profile, you should submit blood in what?
When submitting a blood sample for a total general health profile, you should submit blood in what?

lavender top tube and serum separator tube
CBC
CBC

(Complete blood count) sample is placed in a EDTA test tube (lavender top)
Tests contained in a CBC
Tests contained in a CBC

platelet count, PCV, WBC count, Hemoglobin determination, TP analysis, RBC morphology (count), and WBC differential
Eosinophils
Eosinophils

Are WBCs that are present during allergic reactions, and are rare in appearance
Granulocyte WBC
Granulocyte WBC

Are WBCs that contain granules (neutrophil, eosinophils, and basophils)
PCV
PCV

(packed cell volume) measures the percentage of red blood cells in the total volume of blood
What are the two microhematocrit tubes?
What are the two microhematocrit tubes?

Plain (blue) and heparinized (red)
Where is the plasma obtained?
Where is the plasma obtained?

from the top of a microhematocrit heparin tube after being centrifuged
What is the anatomy of a spun down microhematocrit tube from top to bottom?
What is the anatomy of a spun down microhematocrit tube from top to bottom?

Air, plasma, buffy coat, red blood cells, clay
Hemolysis
Hemolysis

Is when red blood cells have broken down and spilled hemoglobin into the sample, rendering most blood chemistry tests inaccurate
Monocytes
Monocytes

(macrophage) appear on a blood smear as circular white blood cells, much larger than red blood cells, wih a vey large nucleus. They are non-specific responders that help consume invaders. They mature to a moacrophage in tissue.
Serum
Serum

Is the noncellular portion of whole blood after clotting (the resulting fluid from clotted blood). Serum has no fibrinogen (protein in plasma, responsible for clotting), and is the preferred sample for most blood chemistry tests
Plasma
Plasma

the noncelular portion of unclotted blood (ie anticoagulated), it contains proteins & fibrinogen (a clotting protein)
Coagulant
Coagulant

provides additional clotting factors to aid in blood clotting
Anticoagulant
Anticoagulant

prevents or delays a blood sample from clotting
Acanthocytes
Acanthocytes

are RBCs with a membrane abnormally with multiple, irregularly speed projections on the cell surface
Agglutination
Agglutination

are clumps of RBC's in a cluster usually present in animals with autoimmune disorders
Schistocytes
Schistocytes

Are fragments of ruptured and broken RBC's
If an animalhas an untreated condition of diabetes, what chemistry levels in both blood and urine would be elevated?
If an animalhas an untreated condition of diabetes, what chemistry levels in both blood and urine would be elevated?

Glucose
Does routine venipuncture require a sterile field?
Does routine venipuncture require a sterile field?

No
What is used to cleanse the area prior to the blood draw?
What is used to cleanse the area prior to the blood draw?

Isopropel Alcohol
If a client was to free catch urine, and bring it into the clinic for analysis, how should it be stored until they can get it to the clinic?
If a client was to free catch urine, and bring it into the clinic for analysis, how should it be stored until they can get it to the clinic?

The sample should be refridgerated order to preserve the sample, as much as possible. Changes start to occur immediately, such as bacteria in the urine with multiply, cells will degenerate, casts will dissolve
Specific Gravity
(SG) is the concentration of the fluid in relation to the weight / concentration of distilled water

A refractometer is used in order to measure this. SG can be determined with either spun down, or intact urine, and requires only 1 drop on the refractomer
Chemical reagent strp analysis:
Chemical reagent strp analysis:

(multistix) plastic stick with pads that are impregnanted with chemicals that react to urine by changing color. The change in color is read in order to measure PH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilingen, blood, WBC, and nitrites.
Carnivorous animals urine is:
Carnivorous animals urine is:

is normally more acidic and low PH scale
Urinary casts
Urinary casts

are elongated structures composed of protein from plasma and mucoprotein from the renal tubules, they can consist of many substances such as tissue cells, minerals, blood cells, etc.
Reddish brown tinged urine can indicate what?
Reddish brown tinged urine can indicate what?

Blood in the urine or elevated bilirubin
Cytocentesis
Cytocentesis

Is extracting urine directly from the bladder using a sterile needle and syringe.
Hematuria
Hematuria

is the presence of blood in the urine
Dysuria
Dysuria

Difficult/painful urination usually caused by bladder stones,cystits, and urethritis
Anuria
Anuria

absence of, or inability to urinate, this can be caused by a urethral bloackage, or ethylene glycol toxicity
Uremia
Uremia

ia unfiltered urine re-circulating in the bloodstream
What tube is used when sending a urine sample out to a lab?
What tube is used when sending a urine sample out to a lab?

red top tube with no additive
Urolithiasis
Urolithiasis

the type of crystal formed by the ingestion of antifreeze
Fecal Floatation
Fecal Floatation

the principal basis for fecal floatatioin is that the eggs of parasites are lighter than the floatationsolution and will float to the surface where they can be stuck to cover slip placed on top of the vial
Direct fecal smear
Direct fecal smear

done by adding a drop of saline to the sample on the slide
Trematode
Trematode

Are commonly called flukes, and are a parasite worm that can effect most systems (blood, eye, liver, and respiratory tract)
Cestode
Cestode

tapeworm; sheds proglottids that contain eggs
Dipylidium
Dipylidium

is known as the common tapeworm that infects cats and dogs
Toxocara roundworms
Toxocara roundworms

a nematode type endoparasite that is transmitted to neomates through mothers milk
Hookworm and threadworm
Hookworm and threadworm

can enter their hosts by burrowing through the skin
Isospora and Cryptosporidium
Isospora and Cryptosporidium

Coccidia
Giardiasis (Giardia)
Giardiasis (Giardia)

a genus of lagellate protozoa parasite in the intestines of most infected animals. signs are diarrhea, blood in the stool, and lethargy. Caused by contaminated water.
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis

zoonotic, fecal oral, danger to pregnant women
Ectoparasites
Ectoparasites

parasite that resides on the surface of its host (external parasite)
Otodectes
Otodectes

very contagious white mites that infest an animals ear canal (ear mites)
Sucking lice
Sucking lice

head is pointed and much narrower than thorax. Has piercing/sucking mouthparts that penetgrate the skin in order to continually feed
Biting Lice
Biting Lice

head is broad, or boarder than thorax, and has chewing/biting mouthparts used to feed on dead skin, hair, and body secretions
Cheyletiella
Cheyletiella

mites that are larger than demodex or sarcoptes, white in color, and can be seen with the naked eye. They are commonly referred to as "walking dandruff"
sarcoptes spp.
sarcoptes spp.

cause of scabies
Demodex spp. mites
Demodex spp. mites

cause puppy/red mange in dogs, and are usually collected by doing a skin scraping into the dermal follicles.
Fleas
Fleas

wingless, lumping reddish brown insects that live on host animals in order to have access to nutrients (blood).
Which is larger the tick or the mite?
Which is larger the tick or the mite?

Tick
Ixodes spps.
Ixodes spps.

(common wood deer tick) is the vector for the bacteria that causes lyme disease
Borrelia
Borrelia

is the gram negative spirilla that causes lyme disease
The Amercian Dog Tick
The Amercian Dog Tick

transmits potentially fatal diease, rocky mnt. spotted feaver
Pathogen
Pathogen

is a microorganism capable of causing disease
Viruses
Viruses

pathogenic microorganisms are obligated intracellular parasites, that are very difficult to elimate, and are not free living
Salmonella bacteria
Salmonella bacteria

is likely to be determined to humans by handling, or eatng undercooked poultry
Salmonella in reptiles
Salmonella in reptiles

is the normal flora in reptiles
Tetanus bacteria
Tetanus bacteria

is usually transferred to humans by would contact with contaminated soil
Cat Scratch Feaver
Cat Scratch Feaver

Is usually a benign infectious disease most commonly found in children 1-2 weeks following a cat scratch. Can not be caught from cleaning a litter box
Keratoconjunctivitis
Keratoconjunctivitis

is also known as pink eye, and is inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. The onset of this is caused by bacterial infection
Brucellosis
Brucellosis

A zoonotic threat that causes abortion
Psittacosis
Psittacosis

caused by birds
Clostridium Tetani
Clostridium Tetani

Gram positive bacilli causing severe infections that can be treated with anti-toxin injections (a kind of antibody produced in the body of another animal in responcse to the presence of a toxin), whereas the vaccine creates an antibody to the toxin & does not prevent infection
Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus

is a gram positive cocci, causing various infections and mastitis in some animals
Pseudomonas aeruginose
Pseudomonas aeruginose

Gram negative bacilli causing severe infection in wounds. One of the characteristics of this type of infections is a strong odor
Escerichia (E.) Coli
Escerichia (E.) Coli

Is normal part of the GI flora
Bacterial cultures are incubated at what temperature?
Bacterial cultures are incubated at what temperature?

Body temperature
How should potentially anareobic bacteria be stored?
How should potentially anareobic bacteria be stored?

in containers that protect them from expoure to air like a culturette
Mycology
Mycology

Fungal culture (DTM) are generally incubated at room temperature
Tease Mount
Tease Mount

is referred when transferring fungal samples to a slide by lightly touching the surface of a fungal growth with a sterile loop being careful not to disturb the space
Yeast
Yeast

is a unicellular (made up of a single cell) fungi that can be aerobic or anaerobic and can reproduce sexualy or asexually. When gram stained, yeast appears as gram negative, and is purple or blue in color
Ringworm
Ringworm

is a fungal infection of the skin and is highly contagious.
Gram stain
Gram stain

is a staining procedure in which bacteria/fungi are stained with crystal violet, treated with strong iodine solution, and counter stained with contrasting dye, usually safranin. Gram positive items will retain the crystal violet stain and will appear purple/blue. Gram negative items will los the crystal violet stain and will appear red/pink in color
What is a gram strain considered?:
What is a gram strain considered?:

a differential stain
cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrospinal fluid

is obtained by performing a spinal tap; insertion of a spinal needle between the meninges
Spinning the oil immersion lens:
Spinning the oil immersion lens:

when spinning the oil immersion lens the oil must be cleaned from the oil immersion lens and the slide because it can damage the lower power lenses and cause visibility problems on the low power fields
what size clippers should you use for shaving patients?
what size clippers should you use for shaving patients?

#10 for course hair and #40 for fine hair
when setting up for surgical excision of a cancerous tumor you should clip how?:
when setting up for surgical excision of a cancerous tumor you should clip how?:

clip an extra wide area around the site and follow the DVMs instructions for scrubbing and washing
Where should a tumor sample be taken after surgery?:
Where should a tumor sample be taken after surgery?:

should be sealed in a formalin vial for outside lap biopsy
Formalin
Formalin

presents a highly toxic threat to veterinary practice and must be handled with care
From where and how would a DVM order a sample for identification of a respiratory virus?:
From where and how would a DVM order a sample for identification of a respiratory virus?:

A scraping or swab from the nasal passages
Determining Viral Pathogens
Viral Pathogens

when testing for presnce of viral the preferred sample to use is serum (derived from clotted blood, usually a tiger top tube is used for collection)
Attenuated Vaccines
Attenuated Vaccines

refer to pathogenic microbes that have been significantly weakened, but are alive (modified live virus vaccines)
Feline Distemper
Feline Distemper

is caused by a viral pathogen. Is also referred to as PanLeokopenia and feline parvo virus
Feline Infectious anemia
Feline Infectious anemia

is a hemolytic anemia caused by the red blood cell parasite, Haemobartonella felis. Cats with this disease DO NOT have to be placed in isolation ward.
When an animal does not show clinical signs of a vial disease, yet tests positive for the antigen, the virus is said to be what?
When an animal does not show clinical signs of a vial disease, yet tests positive for the antigen, the virus is said to be what?

Latent (dormant or concealed)