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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Category I cardiovascular risk factors

(remove for definite reduction of risk)
HTN,
Smoking,
LDL > 100,
LVH (not very treatable)
Thrombogenic factors
Category II cardiovascular risk factors

(removal likely reduces risk)
DM
Low HDL (try to get it >60)
Obesity
Physical inactivity
Category III cardiovascular risk factors

(removal might reduce risk)
High triglycerides
Lipoprotein (a)
Oxidative stress
Alcohol (too much) (try to have m:2/f:1 glasses per day)
Psychosocial stress factors
CRP
Category IV cardiovascular risk factors

(pt cannot change these things)
Family history
Age
-Men >45, Women >55
Gender
-Men (all)
-Women (postmenopausal)
Congenital abnormalities that are cardiovascular risk factors
Marfan’s syndrome – AR, aorotic dilitaion
Down’s syndrome – endocardial cushion defects
Interuterine alcohol exposure – VSD
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum – PAD, CAD
Tuberous sclerosis – cardiomyopathy
Ehlers-Danlos - MR, atrial dilitation
Acromegaly – cardiomyopathy, valvular disease
Best place to see Pseudoxanthoma elasticum
neck and axilla
Ash Leaf on abdomen
Tuberous Sclerosis
central/south America, valvular heart disease
Chaga’s disease
cause of PDA invitro
rubella
insect that passes T. Cruzii that causes Chagas disease
Reduvit bug (kissing beetle)
When looking at chest x-ray, think ABCD. What's that?
Airway - look for esophagus
Bones
Cardiac shadow
Diaphragm
subtle ischemic symptoms:
(red flag during history)
DOE - dyspnea on exertion
claudication (angina of the legs)
ED - erectile dysfunction
Class 1 thru 4 of cardiological symptoms
Class I – no symptoms with normal activity
Class II – symptoms with normal to heavy activity
Class III - severe symptoms with normal activity, but resolves at rest
Class IV – severe limitations even at rest
Frank's sign?
horizontal/oblique crease in the Ear lobe
Keith-Wagner Classification directly correlate with ________ arterial disease
peripheral (???--this scale is for grading hypertensive retinopathy-mm)
Normal Keith-Wagner Classification
Artery is fine yellow line No AV crossing defects
Class I
Keith-Wagner Classification
Broad yellow line Mild depression of vein
“Copper wire” Depression or “humping”of vein
Class II
Keith-Wagner Classification
“Silver wire”, Exudates, Tapering, right angle derivation (should be deviation-mm)
Class III
Keith-Wagner Classification
Class IV
Keith-Wagner Classification
Fibrous cords, exudates, papilledema Same as Class III
Hepato-jugular reflex?
push on liver bed and get jugular venous distension
What do you palpate in cardiovascular exam?
pulses
HJR
heaves/thrills
PMI
Pulse with 2 peaks
Bisiferens pulse
What does Bisiferens pulse suggest?
Aortic regurg
regular alteration of pulse pressure
Pulsus Alterans
what does pulsus alterans suggest?
decreased LV function
What does Parvus et Tardus (long and late) suggest?
aortic stenosis
What does Pulsus Paradoxus (decreased pulse with inspiration, or gone altogether) suggest?
cardiac tamponade
What CVP height diagnosis JVD
> 3cm above sternal notch (in any position)
Cannon A wave?
Cannon A wave – TS; JVP goes up and down in Jugular Vein
Kussmal’s sign?
Kussmal’s sign – increased CVP with inspiration secondary to right sided CHF
cause of cannon a waves
caused by atrial contractions against a closed tricuspid valve and observed in the jugular venous pulse
What conditions cause a constant splitting of S2?
"fixed split” with MR,VSD,or constrictive paricarditis
S3 suggests what heart problem?
CHF
S4 is a ______ problem

(bad question, I know)
compliance
classes of soft and loud murmurs
2 and 3
class of murmur with thrill
4
class of murmur hear without bell on the chest
6
heart problems with holosystolic murmurs
MR, TR, VSD
heart problems with Midsystolic (crescendo-decrescendo) murmurs
PS, AS, MR, HSS
Which have decreased hand grips?
AS
MR
HSS
AS and HSS
Which is "brought out" with Valsalva?
AS
MR
HSS
HSS
Which Radiates to axilla?
AS
MR
HSS
MR
Which is heard in the Right 2nd intercostal and radiates to neck?
AS
MR
HSS
AS