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56 Cards in this Set

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A medical condition caused or exacerbated by the weather, terrain, atmospheric pressure, or other local factors.
Environmental emergency
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a steady and normal internal environment.
Homeostasis
The difference in temperature between the environment and the body.
Thermal gradient
The production of heat especially within the body.
Thermogenesis
Moving electrons, ions, heat or sound waves through a conductor or conducting medium.
Conduction
Transfer of heat via currents in liquids or gases.
Convection
Transfer of energy through space or matter.
Radiation
Change from liquid to a gaseous state.
Evaporation
The exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment.
Respiration
The maintenance or regulation of a particular temperature of the body.
Thermoregulation
The body temperature of the deep tissues, which usually does not vary more than a degree or so from its normal 37° C (98.6° F).
Core temperature
Comparative Body Temperatures
Celsius Fahrenheit
40.6° 105°
37.8° 100°
37° 98.6°
35° 95°
32° 89.6°
30° 86°
20° 68°
Portion of the diencephalon producing neurosecretions important in the control of certain metabolic activities, including body temperature regulation.
Hypothalamus
Homeostatic mechanism in which a change in a variable (here, core temperature) ultimately inhibits the process that led in the shift.
Negative feedback
Mechanisms of Heat Dissipation
- Sweating
- Vasodilation
Mechanisms of Heat Conservation
- Shivering
- Vasoconstriction
Rate at which the body consumes energy just to maintain stability; the basic metabolic rate (measured by the rate of oxygen consumption) of an awake, relaxed person 12 to 14 hours after eating and at a comfortable temperature.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Rate at which the body consumes energy during activity. It is faster than the basal metabolic rate.
Exertional metabolic rate
Increased core body temperature due to inadequate thermolysis.
Heat illness
Unusually high core body temperature.
Hyperthermia
Heat Disorders
- Hyperthermia
- Heat cramps
- Heat exhaustion
- Heatstroke
Condition that damages the autonomic nervous system, which usually senses changes in temperature and controls vasodilation and perspiration to dissipate heat.
Autonomic neuropathy
The reversible changes in body structure and function by which the body becomes adjusted to a change in environment.
Acclimatization
Acute painful spasms of the voluntary muscles following strenuous activity in hot environment without adequate fluid or salt intake.
Heat cramps
A mild heat illness; an acute reaction to heat exposure.
Heat exhaustion
Acute, dangerous reaction to heat exposure, characterized by a body temperature usually above 105° F (40.6° C) and central nervous system disturbances. The body usually ceases to perspire.
Heatstroke
Fever, or above-normal body temperature.
Pyrexia
Any substance causing a fever, such as virus and bacteria or substances produced within the body in response to infection or inflammation.
Pyrogen
Cold Disorders
- Hypothermia
- Frostbite
- Trench foot
State of low body temperature, particularly low core body temperature.
Hypothermia
ECG deflection found at the junction of the QRS complex and the ST segment. It is associated with hypothermia and seen at core temperatures below 32° C, most commonly in leads II and V6; also called an Osborn wave.
J wave
Environmentally induced freezing of body tissues causing destruction of cells.
Frostbite
Freezing involving only epidermal tissues resulting in redness followed by blanching and diminished sensation; also called frostnip.
Superficial frostbite
Freezing involving epidermal and subcutaneous tissues resulting in a white appearance, hard (frozen) feeling on palpation, and loss of sensation.
Deep frostbite
A painful foot disorder resembling frostbite and resulting from exposure to cold and wet, which can eventually result in tissue sloughing or gangrene, also called immersion foot.
Trench foot
Asphyxiation resulting from submersion on liquid with death occurring within 24 hours of submersion.
Drowning
An incident of potentially fatal submersion in liquid which did not result in liquid which did not result in death or in which death occurred more than 24 hours after submersion.
Near-drowning
A compound secreted by cells in the lungs that regulates the surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli, important in keeping the alveoli open for gas exchange.
Surfactant
A complex cardiovascular reflex, resulting from submersion of the face and nos in water, that constricts blood flow everywhere except to the brain.
Mammalian diving reflex
Acronym for self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. Portable apparatus that contains compressed air which allows the diver to breathe underwater.
Scuba
The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure if the temperature is kept constant.
Boyle's Law
The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
Dalton's Law
The amount of gas dissolved in a given volume of fluid is proportional to the pressure of the gas above it.
Henry's Law
Injuries caused by changes in pressure. Barotrauma that occurs from increasing pressue during a diving descent is commonly called "the squeeze."
Barotrauma
A state of stupor that develops during deep dives due to nitrogen's effects on cerebral function; also called "raptures of the deep."
Nitrogen narcosis
Development of nitrogen bubbles within the tissues due to a rapid reduction of air pressure when a diver returns to the surface; also called "the bends."
Decompression illness
Expansion of air held in the lings during ascent. If not exhaled, the expanded air may cause injury to the lungs and surrounding structures.
Pulmonary overpressure
An air bubble, or air embolism, that enters the circulatory system from a damaged lung.
Arterial gas embolism (AGE)
The presence of air in the mediastinum.
Pneumomediastinum
A collection of air in the pleural space. Air may enter the pleural space through an injury to the chest wall or through an injury to the lings. In a tension pneumothroax, pressure builds because there is no way for the air to escape, causing lung collapse.
Pneumothorax
Resubmission of a person to a greater pressure so that gradual decompression can be achieved; often used in the treatment of diving emergencies.
Recompression
Recompression chamber used to treat patients suffering form barotrauma.
Hyperbaric oxygen chamber
Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. X-ray) or particulate radiation (e.g., alpha particles, beta particles, and neutrons) that, by direct or secondary processes, Ionizes materials that absorb the radiation. Ionizing radiation can penetrate the cells of living organisms, depositing an electrical charge within them. When sufficiently intense, this form of energy kills cells.
Ionizing radiation
Time required for half of the nuclei of a radioactive substance to lose activity by undergoing radioactive decay. In biology and pharmacology, the time required by the body to metabolize and inactivate half the amount of a substance taken in.
Half-life
"Clean" Radiation Accidents
Patient is exposed to radiation but not contaminated by radioactive particles, liquids, gases, or smoke.
"Dirty" Radiation Accidents
Patient is contaminated by radioactive particles, liquids, gases, or smoke.