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32 Cards in this Set

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Chemical substance released by a gland that controls or affects processes in other glands or body systems.
Hormone
Gland that secretes chemical substances directly into the blood; also called a ductless gland.
Endocrine gland
Gland that secretes chemical substances to nearby tissues through a duct; also called a ducted gland.
Exocrine gland
The natural tendency of the body to keep the internal environment and metabolism steady and normal.
Homeostasis
The sum of cellular processes that produce the energy and molecules needed for growth and repair.
Metabolism
Endocrine Glands
- Hypothalamus
- Pituitary
- Thyroid
- Parathyroid
- Thymus
- Pancreas
- Adrenals
- Gonads
- Pineal
Part of the nervous system controlling involuntary bodily functions. It is divided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems.
Autonomic nervous system
Excessive urine production caused by inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone.
Diabetes insipidus
The breakdown of glycogen to glucose, primarily by liver cells.
Glycogenolysis
Conversion of protein and fat to form glucose.
Gluconeogenesis
Disorder of inadequate insulin activity, due either to inadequate production of insulin or to decreased responsiveness of body cells to insulin.
Diabetes mellitus
The constructive or "building up" phase of metabolism.
Anabolism
The destructive or "breaking down" phase of metabolism.
Catabolism
Compounds produced during the catabolism of fatty acids, including acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone.
Ketone bodies
The presence of significant quantities of ketone bodies in the blood.
Ketosis
Deficiency of blood gluclose. Sometimes called insulin shock.
Hypoglycemia
Excessive blood glucose.
Hyperglycemia
Greatly increased urination and dehydration that results when high levels of glucose cannot be reabsorbed into the blood from the kidney tubules and the osmotic pressure of the glucose in the tubules also prevents water reabsorption.
Osmotic diuresis
Formation and secretion of large amounts of urine.
Diuresis
Glucose in urine, which occurs when blood glucose levels exceed the kidney's ability to reabsorb glucose.
Glycosuria
Symptoms of Untreated Type I Diabetes Mellitus
- Polydipsia
- Polyuria
- Polyphagia
- Weakness
- Weight loss
Complication of type I diabetes due to decreased insulin intake. Marked by high blood glucose, metabolic acidosis, and, in advanced stages, coma. Ketoacidosis is often called diabetic coma.
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Complication of type II diabetes due to inadequate insulin activity. Marked by high blood glucose, marked dehydration, and decreased mental function. Often mistaken for ketoacidosis.
Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic (HHNK) coma
Seizure that occurs when brain cells are not functioning normally due to low blood glucose.
Hypoglycemic seizure
Excessive secretion of thyroid hormones resulting in an increased metabolic rate.
Hyperthyroidism
Condition that reflects long-term exposure to inadequate levels of thyroid hormones with resultant changes in body structure and function.
Myxedema
Endocrine disorder characterized by excess thyroid hormones resulting in body changes associated with increased metabolism; primary cause of thyrotoxicosis.
Graves' disease
Toxic condition characterized by hyperthermia, tachycardia, nervous symptoms, and rapid metabolism; also known as thyroid storm.
Thyrotoxic crisis
Life-threatening condition associated with advanced myxedema, with profound hypothermia, bradycardia, and electrolyte imbalance.
Myxedema coma
Pathological condition resulting from excess adenocortical hormones. Symptoms may include changed body habitus, hypertension, vulnerability to infection.
Cushing's syndrome
Endocrine disorder characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency. Symptoms may include weakness, fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin and mucous membranes.
Addison's disease
Form of shock associated with adrenocortical insufficiency and characterized by profound hypotension and electrolyte imbalances.
Addisonian crisis