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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
who is more affected by spasmodic dysphonia?
females (4:1); typically discovered between ages 39 and 45
what is the cause of spasmodic dysphonia?
cause is unknown
what are the symptoms of spasmodic dysphonia?
action-induced, abrupt initiation and termination of voice, and may have a tremor or spasm
what is the treatment of spasmodic dysphonia?
no cure, can only reduce severity of symptoms with botox, voice therapy, AAC, or surgery
causes of TBI?
external forces acting on the head such as motor vehicle accidents, falls, assaults, explosion injuries
what is the prevalence of TBI?
1.25 million people a year receive medical attention, 1 in 4 are hospitalized, 1 in 3 are left w/ permanent disabilities
what is the severity of TBI?
mild tbi may cause temporary dysfunction of brain cells, severe tbi may cause bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and others that could result in long-term complications or death
What is dysarthria?
a motor speech disorder in which muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move more slowly, or not move at all
what is the treatment of TBI?
little can be done to reverse the initial brain damage. rehabilitation involves individualized treatment programs
what is myasthenia gravis?
a common type of flaccid dysarthria; an autoimmune disease in which the neuromuscular junction becomes impaired as the patient uses that particular muscle or muscle group, resulting in extreme muscle fatigue
what is the incidence of myasthenia gravis?
1 in 10,000
what causes myasthenia gravis?
the immune system produces antibodies that attack the receptors that lie on the muscle side of the neuromuscular junction
what are the symptoms of myasthenia gravis?
vocal change with voice usage from normal to breathy, weak and barely audible. a few minutes of vocal rest can restore the voice, but a few minutes of usage will cause symptoms to return
what is the treatment of myasthenia gravis?
anticholinesterase medications, immunodepressants, antimetabolite agents, corticosteroids, thymectomy, plasmapheresis
what is an essential tremor?
most common of the movement disorders and is considered a benign autosomal dominant condition with variable penetrance
what are the symptoms of the essential tremor?
may appear in tongue, velar, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures, producing vocal tremor in the 4-7 per second range
what is the familial tremor?
a common form of essential tremor (50% of all cases) often beginning in early adulthood
what are the symptoms of familial tremors?
exaggerated termorous behavior, more than the normal tremor
who is most affected by familial tremors?
people who are overworking particular muscles, such as may be felt or seen while carrying a heavy weight
what is the treatment of essential tremors?
little to be done medically or therapeutically