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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Taiwan, 1996
-Taiwan held democratic elections
-PRC massed troops
-US put a carrier group there
N. KOR Agreed Framework
-btn Kim il Sung and Clinton
-US provided a light-water nuclear power generator
-US agreed to provide them with free oil for 8-10 years
-N. KOR agreed to allow weapons inspectors
-NKOR agreed to shut down a nuclear processing plant which could be used to me nukes
-2002 Kim Jun Il renounced framework, expelled inspectors, prepared to restart plant
American Project
-What the US should be doing (liberal internationalism)
-to protect domestic security & build a peaceful world order of democracies linked by common values and economic prosperity
-to build this, US used 4 kinds of power
--sticky: economic pwr
--sharp: mil pwr
--sweet: attraction and enticement, appeal, culture
--hegemonic: ability to provide public goods
-a way of life
-reflects the old, industrial-based economy of 20th century
-equaled welfare capitalism
Fordism Characteristics
-hands off eco replaced by govt
-macro-stability (organized labor, regulated biz)
-heavy taxes, tight regulation
-extensive govt social safety net
-Fordism=welfare capitalism
Harmonic Convergence
view of US hist which existed from 1950's until Millennial Capitalism
-convergence of classes, ppl and nations around specific ideals
--welfare capitalism (fordism)
--liberal internationalism
-capitalism would produce affluence and universal education leading to a decline in bigotry and superstition
-wealth=health & well-being
-trade=cosmopolitanism and dem peace
-result=peace, prosperity, enlightenment
Contradiction in world role of US
-Mandate to create a world order (w/o creating an empire)
-must generate and apply power (not too much, or world mad)
-international institutions are a way to resolve this contradiction
--shared decisions impart legitimacy
--international institutions include countries that do not share our values
Multilateral delimma
-international law often interferes with US role in creating stable world order
-no solution; must manage prob
Millennial Capitalism Characteristics
-new tech based eco
-reliance on operation of the free market sys
-less statism/regulation
-involves globalization
Factors in development of MC
--reduce taxas/supply side/reduce inflation
--investment in 80's led to IT revolution in 90's
Anti-Americanism caused by MC
Elites hate it bc they lose control of policy
-Elites pissed off
-blame US for '97 meltdown
Latin America:
-disillusionment w/Washington Consensus (free market policies)
-US support of Israel
-economic investment led to disruptions
-US mil presence
American Revival
-support MC
-want to revive traditional American values
-want to restore American international power
4 Schools of Thought with American Revival
-Hamiltonians: economic nationalists
-Wilsonians: idealist internationalists
-Jeffersonians: isolationist
-Jacksonians: populist nationalist
Revival Wilsonians
-believe in aggressive pursuit of ideological values as part of national security interests
-combo of Realpolitik and values-based foreign policy
American Revival arose from decline of Fordism
-MC FOSTERS trad American values
Bush 2 and Revival
Made it the basis of his foreign policy (when MC wasn't popular in the world)
Bush declared this an act of war; no distinction btn terrorists or those harboring them
Al Queda attacks on American targets
-1993 1st WTC bombing
-'98 Bombings of US embassies in Kenya and Tanzania
-2000 attack on USS Cole
-Barak and PLO leader Arafat met at Camp David in 2000
-came close to peace
-failed bc of Right of Return and status of Jerusalem
-Al Queda supports Palestinian terrorists
-Operation Enduring Freedom
-ground forces=mainly Northern Alliance (Uzbeks and Tajiks)
-Musharraf (pakistan) helped
-2nd phase=spec ops supposed to intercept enemy forces, but they got thru at Tora Bora
Bush Grand Strategy
-US Primacy
--used to promote a modal for others
--not used to dominate others
--against non-state actors
--seen as inconsistent w/accepted international law
Al Queda According to Doran
-believes arabic civilization has declined bc of West
-wants to establish a Pan-Arab Theocracy
-rational actor
-appeals to Arabs
-zionism/racism/colonialism supported by West
-Palestine a symbol to Arabs
-any action against West=victory
-9/11: wanted to draw US into a quagmire
Positive Reasons for Invasion of Iraq by Hook & Spanier
-quell fears of WMD's
-show rogue states US meant biz
-relieve suffering of Iraqis
-establish a liberal regime
Critiques of Invasion
-diversion from war on terror
-Hussein and terrorists have nothing in common
-cause diplomatic probs
-might provoke more attacks
-upset ME pwr balance
Mueller's Rally Effect
-when international crisis, ppl rally around the prez/his policies
-after a time, this support dwindles
UN Resolution 1441
-called for immediate access for weapons inspectors and full cooperation in Iraq
-Kurds (european ethnicity) 20%
-Shiites (unorthodox muslims) 60%
-Sunnis (orthodox muslims) 20% (saddam was sunni)
Iraqi Insurgents are made up of...
-former Baathist party members
-islamic fundamentalists
-US saw Saddam as threat, Europe didn't
-europeans daubt US leadership
-islamic threat hasn't replaced soviet threat
-europeans don't fear WMD's
Unipolar Predicament
-Europeans had a bit of pwr over US in cold war
-say they object to Bush doctrine, preemption, question US leadership
-really they don't like unilateralism
-US needs europe; they're core of liberal world
-they can confer legitimacy upon US
National Security Strategy of the US (Bush Doctrine) 2002
any dictatorial country who links w/terrorists or seeks WMD's are candidates for preemption
Mead's Rational for Iraqi Invasion
-WMD's (major INTEL's believed they were there)
-demonstrate to our enemies/potential enemies that attacks on US would be met w/overwhelming force/destruction
-create 1st Arab dem. (Wilsonian agenda)
-easy victory would have a sobering effect on other countries in ME (Saudi Arabia, Iran, Syria)
-stop suffering of Iraqis
-containment of Saddam destabilizing region
-nature of the regime was negative
Mead and Europe
-europe no longer as important strategically as it used to be
-europe not worried about axis of evil bc weapons not aimed at them
-aren't worried abt other countries getting nuked bc its inevitable
-want US to win in Iraq, but just barely
-don't like Bruaque Diplomacy
Where Bush was Right
-respond to attack as a war
-necessary to demonstrate the will of US w/overwhelming odds
-progress with Libya (dismantling WMD's), Iran (negotiated nuke deal)
-security council inept
Where Bush was wrong
-no WMD's
-diplomacy failed in Turkey
-didn't prepare US public
--overemphasized WMD's
--didn't prepare ppl for long war
-failed diplomacy in europe
-biggest failure=public diplomacy
-failure to plan for postwar environment
Elements of Anti-Americanism
-Millennial Capitalism & American Revival
-inherent contradictions of American rule
-Iraq war
-Bush allowed a perfectly-acceptable war to be seen as an attack on world order
Prescription for Anti-Americanism
-fight against terrorism must be long-term and multi-demensional
-Strategy: forward containment
Forward Containment
-weaken terrorist grps, terror ties to govts, deny access to WMD's
-contain ideology
-contain states or prevent states from forming who support terrorist ideology
-3 goals over time
--deprive terror of victories
--keep their orgs weak
--build healthy societies
Prescription for Palestine-Israel conflict
-compensate dispossessed Palestinians
-other Arab state should accept homeless P citizens
N.KOR Nuclear Proliferation
-6-party talks
-NKOR gets nukes, arms race begins in region
Iran Nuclear Program
-'03 started fission
-'05 Ahmadinejad becomes prez
--incurred UN sanctions
--defies UN
--very inflammatory
Consequences of War in Iraq
-increased anti-Americanism
-exacerbated pol divisions intensified
-Iraq has become a communal conflict
-upset ME pwr balance
-Bush went to Iraq w/intention of upsetting status quo
-unintended consequences=Iran & NKOR wanting nukes
-things should come together after status quo interrupted, wrong
--no occupation plan
--overstretched mil
--multilateral resistance
-US must inspire others to follow it
Baker-Hamilton Report
-US out by 2008
-very critical
-US should engage other countries in talks which would give these countries stakes in Iraq's stability
-road to Baghdad thru Jerusalem
-Iraq is not Vietnam
--not an ideological war
--ppl/nationalities fighting each other
-communal war
-"Iraqization" won't work
Specific Consequences of War in Iraq
-US Soft/hegemonic pwr
-who's containing whom? (US bogged down in Iraq)
-discourage regime change
-"civil war"
"Shiite Crescent"
-possibility of regional war, possibly along sectarian lines
-US leverage in ME
-mil struggle
-no sectarian reconciliation
-combined Shiite and US forces must destroy insurgents
--US needs to keep Shiites from killing everyone
--take out Sunnis
--take out Shiites
-ME will become more Shiite as result of Iraq war (watch out for Sunni backlash)
-don't overemphasize nat'l differences (Iran could influence Iraqi shiites)
-Iran will do anything to make US fail in Iraq (so US will be less likey to commit to further regime change)
-US could offer security to Iran in exchange for Iran supporting stability in Iraq
-Iraq war disrupted ME pwr balance (Iran now has another prob: US)
-disrupted pwr balance gives US opportunities:
--Sunni States fear Shiite crescent
--US has leverage w/Sunni states to counter Iranian and Shiite crescent influence
--US can detach Syria from its alliance w/Iran to counter Iranian and Shiite crescent forces
Kennen and War on Terror
-both Cold War and War on terror were wars of ideology
-enemy's capabilities different
-resources: war on terror MUST be symmetrical/unlimited
-must be long term
--public diplomacy
---multilateral (diplomacy)
---sweet pwr (Ideology)
---pub goods (hegemonic pwr)
--can help w/economic pwr, soft pwr, influence, etc
-restore balance of pwr in ME
What's Changed in Bush Strategy
-more interest in being multilateral
-more state diplomacy
-deemphasize regime change
-more realism
Bush Strategy 1st Term
-virtually unlimited means
-unidimensional (strong mil, weak pub diplomacy)
-invasion sent message to potential terrorists/terrorist supporters
-includes peripheral interests