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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Carter Administration
-Characterized by confusion and inconsistency
-Vietnam Syndrome
-correlation of forces had changed in favor of the SU (Bresnev)
Carter Admin Strategy
-detente and human rights
-criticized Nixon Strategy
-left=power politics
-too inclined to placate soviets
-wanted a similar strategy w/o objectionable material
-breakthrough on SALT (SALT II=centerpiece of diplomacy)
-aggressive promotion of human rights
-continued deterrence of SU
-less preoccupation with SU
-negotiate, reform, deter, ignore SU alliance
Ogaden War 1977
-btn Ethiopia and Somalia
-US supported Somalia, SU Ethiopia
-US stopped aid to Somoza regime in 1978 which then fell to the Sandinista's(Ortega)
Balfour Declaration 1917
-by UK
-called for a Jewish homeland in ME
-lots of immigration in '20's and '30's
-lots of fighting
Panama Canal Treaty
(brief hist)
-May 1948, UK withdrew
-Arab League attacked, Jordan took W. Bank
-1967 I smashed Egypt, took Sinai, W. Bank, Gaza, Golan Heights
-1973 Yam Kippur War
-Camp David Accords 1978
Ben Gurion
-Declared state of Israel, (war '48-49)
Camp David Accords
-Begin (Israel) and Sadat (EG)
-EG recognized Israel
-IS gave EG Sinai
-This was big: EG first ME nation to recognize IS, EG lost some credibility
-US recognized PRC and terminated defense treaty with Taiwan
-Islamic Revolution in Iran, siezed US embassy and took hostages
-SU invaded Afghanistan, Carter begain to see things differently after Afghanistan
Carter Doctrine
-SU invasion of Afghanistan changed Carter's mind
-withdrew SALT II
-Oil producing states of Persian Gulf affect US vital interests, and US will protect them from external attack
Reagan Strategy
-two things gone: detente, MAD
Reagan took office when the SU...he did what
-took office when when SU was in a state of economic decay and imperial overstretch
-US engaged in a mil buildup
-NATO decided on INF
-detente was dead
-Brehsnev had bad timing
Reagan won the election because...
-rejected SALT II
-increase defense spending
-more aggressive foreign policy towards SU
Intermediate Nuclear Force
-SU had intermediate nukes in Europe, this hurt MAD and deterrence
-allies put IN's there to restore the balance
-huge demonstrations in Europe against them (Nuke Freeze Movement)
-Reagan gave his "Ash heap of history" speech during this time
-all the nukes were eventually dismantled by "Zero Option"
-May 1982
-Strategic Arms Reduction Talks
-pol. opposition didn't believe Reagan, thought it was a pol. move
-he was serious
-Strategic Defense Initiative
-"Star Wars"
-terrified SU
-the couldn't match that tech
-it was asymmetrical
-designed to bleed SU
-Polish labor movement, 1981
-attempted to organize as a labor union w/right to strike, even though commie party supposed to represent labor
-was allowed to form, then sought pol. power
-led by Lech Walesa
-went too far, Polish govt declared martial law
-US imposed eco sanctions
-SU didn't intervene
-communist model began to be called into question around the world
Reagan Doctrine
-US would attempt to remove illegitimate marxist govts by aiding freedom fighters
-El Salvador, Ethiopia, Afghanistan, Angola, Nicaragua
-was an attempt to "roll back" communism at min. cost and risk to us,
-focused on remote areas not too vital to SU
-"3rd wave of democratization"
-bleed SU
Iran-Contra Scandal/Affair
-Reagan accused of selling weapons to Iran
-used the $ to fund contras to fight the Sandinistas
-came when US was intentionally engaging SU in arms race to exhaust them (large budget deficits were incurred)
Gorby and Reagan at Geneva
-formed an important working relationship
-helped negotiations
-talked abt making deep cuts in strategic weapons
-Gorby proposed banning strategic nukes by 2000
Reykjavik City
-G and R met
-SU would agree to 50% cut to strategic weapons and accept "Zero Tolerance" if US didn't deploy and strategic defense of any kind for 10yrs
-negotiations collapsed when US refused to end SDI
INF Treaty
-Dec '87
-SU accepted "Zero Option"
-first time in hist both superpowers destroyed an entire class of missiles
-signed in Washington
Reagan Strategy
-virtually unlimited means
-involved an attempt at internal change
-multi-dimensional (not focused ONLY on mil)
-set the stage for the Velvet Revolution in E. Europe
-Gorby's term for the reforms he implemented to fight corruption in the SU
Berlin Wall
-Nov 1989
-Dec Erich Honecker fell, travel restrictions lifted
Velvet Revolution 1989
-leader of Romania executed (Ceausescu)
-other then that, non-violent
-b4 Reagan left office, he had negotiated START I
-signed by Bush in '91
-reduced strategic weapons by 50%
Boris Yeltsin
-1st prez of Russian Republic
-proposed autonomy
-personally resigned from Commie party
End of Soviet Union
-Dec 1991, SU ended with the creation/declaration of the CIS
Causes of the Fall
-long-term process
-internal decay
-burden of imperialism
-inability to dominate Europe
-bankruptcy of soviet ideology
-new gen. of elites who caused reform
-Glasnost (opening) from Gorby
-Reagan's strategy of straining the SU
Kennen's Predictions
-long-term process
-internal decay
-burden of imperialism
-bankruptcy of Soviet Ideology
Bush 1's New World Order
-freedom and human rights
-US leadership and multilateral cooperation
-an expanded role for international organizations
-the promotion of democratic peace
Operation Just Cause
-US intervened militarily in Panama
-deposed Manuel Noriega (for rigging elections and drug trafficking)
Saddam Hussein
-Invaded Kuwait in Aug 1990
-wanted the oil money
-wanted to secure his pol. position w/his people and the ME in general
-always against US and Israel, for Palistine
Reasons No Invasion of Iraq
- Lack of coalition support for the invasion
- Fear of fragmentation among the Iraqi ethnic and religious groups
- Concern that the collapse of Iraq might upset the regional power balance.
Democratic Enlargement
-proposed by Clinton
-strengthen existing market democracies
-create new democracies and market economies
-protect democracies from aggression
-promote democracy and market economies in areas of greatest
humanitarian concern
-main challenger to Realism
-strategic issues/mil force are less important
-issue/non-state actors
-states have a reason to cooperate
Inter-related themes in Nye's Book
-Nature of US Pwr
-Effect of IT/Globalization
-Pursuit of US interests
Nature of US Power
-mil force=less important
-soft power important
-we should make it so other nations WANT to do what we want
-leading nation can legitimize its power through hegemonic pwr and public goods, addressing multilaterally addressing probs of common concern around the globe
Paradox of Am. Power
-no other country can challenge us militarily
-we still need help from other countries
Effect of IT/Globalization on IR
-changes govt and sovereignty
-increases role of non-state actors
-increases importance of soft power
-gives ppl access to information and organizations
-US needs to have good public diplomacy to influence this/these ppl
Pursuit of US Interests (neoliberalism view)
-unilateralism=arrogance, will erode our soft power
-we must be multi-lateral, use soft pwr and pub goods
-this gives other countries a say and provides a check on our use of power
Compare and Contrast Realism and Neoliberalism
-rational utility maximizer
-strategic focus
-state centric

-state is still MAIN ACTOR, but not the only one (not unitary), non-state actors conduct transnational activities
-nations have a reason to be rational, agrees w/realism
-does not have strategic focus, says cooperation is possible and low politics (contradicts Realism)
-not state centric, there are tons of non-state actors
-Clinton's policy towards Iraq was "containment" (dual with Iran)
-pattern: Saddam would defy/provoke till use of force against him would decline
-China, Russia, France had interests in Iraq
-wore down coalition
Clinton's Foreign Policy
-based on "assertive multilaterlism"
-expanded role of UN
-GOP majority in congress gave him trouble:
--opposed New World Order
--cut state dept. spending
--cut foreign aid
--raised defense spending
Failed States
-Operation Restore Hope
-humanitarian disaster
-Hutu's vs Tootsies
-800,000 deaths
-UN did nothing
-Kabila took over against Mobutu
-country dissolved in ethnic conflict
-1990, held dem. elections, Aristide elected
-removed by mil and replaced by Cedras
-US & Canada sent peacekeepers, but ran away
-Clinton issued ultimatum, Cedras backed-down, Aristide returned
-turmoil resumed
-US left in 1999
India & Pakistan
-nuclear tests
-weakened NPT
Hungtington: Why Civilizations?
-civilizations are how ppl define themselves
-world is a smaller place
-backlash against modernization (religious fundamentalism)
-backlash against Westernization (back to roots)
-culture doesn't change easily
Powell Doctrine
-weigh public support
-clearly-defined exit strategy
-cost & benifits
Maastricht Treaty
-created EU in 1992
-Euro in 1999
-collective defense (against external threats)
-collective security (against internal threats)
Partnership for Peace
-created a probationary period before getting into NATO
-E. European countries wanted in, Ruskies not happy
Russian-NATO Founding Act, 1997
-reassure Russia that there wouldn't be foreign troops or nukes in E. Europe E. European countries joined NATO
-1999, Poland, Hungary, Zcheck Republic joined NATO
Wars of Yugoslavian Secession: 5 Major Ethnic/Religious Grps
-Slovenes (E. Orthodox)
-Croats (Catholic)
-Serbs (Catholic)
-Bosnian Muslims
-Albanians (mostly Muslim)
Dayton Accords, 1995
-Dayton, Ohio
-1996: ceasefire and 60,000 peacekeepers
-3-member presidency
-'96 elections didn't provide unity
-90% Albanian
-Kosovars declared independence
-Milosovic began ethnic cleansing after his previous failures/defeats
-'99, NATO sent airstrikes, but only emboldened M
-intensive air campaign began under Clinton against Belgrade
Results of Kosovo
-demonstrated serious unity issues in Europe, UN
-military capabilities of European nations were lacking
-showed weaknesses in New World Order