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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Language
Shared, rule-governed system of symbolic code to communication
social tool, rule-bound, active process, creative tool, spoken or nonspoken, and is dynamic
speech
verbal utterances
Phonology
governs the structure, position, and sequence of speech sounds
phoneme
smallest unit of sound
"th" "b"
45 of them
morphology
set of linguistic rules that govern the make-up of words
morpheme
smallest unit of expression that cannont be broken down into smaller units without destroying its meaning.
100,000 of them
-s, -ed, -ing
syntax
rules that govern sentence structure
nouns, verbs, adjectives = complete thought
semantics
system of rules that govern the content, the meaning of words, and relationships between words
Which does not belong: peach, pear, or carrot?
synonyms/antonyms
pragmatics
rules that govern the use of language for communication
how ask for things, tell a story, begin and carry a coversation, adjust speech to a listener's perspective
prelinguistic speech
utterances of sounds that are not words.
crying, cooing, imitation of sounds without meaning
linguistic speech
verbal expression designed to convey meaning
10-14 months
"wah-wah" = water
linguistic speech
verbal expression designed to convey meaning
10-14 months
"wah-wah" = water
holophrase
single word that conveys a complete thought
"Da" = "Where's daddy?"
telegraphic speech
early form of sentence consisting of only a few essential words
-simplify, understand grammatical relationships, underextend, overextend, overregularize
18-24 months - first word
20-30 months - syntax
"Dolly fall!"
fast mapping
child absorbs the meaning of a new word after hearing it only once or twice in conversation
age 3 - 1000 words
age 6 - 2600 words
social speech
speech intended to be understood by a listener
ask for things, tell a joke, use language to communicate
metacommunication
understanding the processes involved in communication
how communication takes place
middle childhood
being aware of the connection between instructions and results
private speech
talking aloud to oneself with no intent to communicate
piaget age 2-3 (20-50% of speech) egocentric

vygotsky age 3-5 (86%) not egocentric
learning theory
operant conditioning; babies imitate the sounds they hear adults make
Skinner
nativism
human brain has the capacity for acquiring language. brain analyzes language heard and figures out the rules
chomsky
language acquisition device
language acquisition device
inborn mechanism that enables children to infer linguistic rules from the language they hear
broca's area
planning and coordinating the motor movements necessary for speech
left hemisphere
wernicke's area
organizing outgoing messages and analyzing and interpreting incoming ones
left temporal lobe
code-mixing
elements of two languages by young children in households where both languages are spoken
code-switching
changing one's speech to match the situation (bilingual)
child-directed speech
parentese; speech used when talking to babies or toddlers; slow, simple, exaggerated, vowel sounds or short words, REPETITION
baby talk
english-immersion approach
teaching english as a second language in which instruction is presented only in english
ESL
bilingual education
teaching foreign speaking children in their native language while they learn english, and later switching to an all english instruction
two way- dual language learning
english speakers and non-english speakers learn together in their own and each other's languages
most successful!