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40 Cards in this Set

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Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places.
Abstract Language
Ideas and qualities
Latin for "against the man." When a writer personally attacks his or her opponents instead of their arugments
Ad hominem
Personally attacks
A story, fictional or nonfictional, in which characters, things, and events represent qualities or concepts. The interaction of these characters, things, and events is meant to reveal an abstraction or a truth. These characters, etc. may be symbolic of the ideas referred to.
Representation of qualities or concepts
The repetition of initial identical consonant sounds. Or, vowel sounds in successive words or syllables that repeat.
Initial identical consonant sounds
An indirect reference to something (usually a literary text) with which the readers is supposed to be familiar. It is often used with humorous intent, to establish a connection between writer and reader, or to make a subtle point.
Indirect reference
An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. Also, the manner of expression of such an event or situation may be such. Artful language may be this. When it is unintentional, it is usually vague.
Pegasus, vagueness
A comparison to a directly parallel case. When a writer uses this, he or she argues that a claim reasonable for one case is reasonable for this case.
Comparison to a directly parallel case
A brief recounting of a relevant episode. They are often inserted into fictional or nonfictional texts as a way of developing a point or injecting humor.
Weird Al, recounting of relevant episode
Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data.
Explanatory notes
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity.
A balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses.
Often called circular reasoning, it occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.
Begging the Question
Circular reasoning
Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X. They often are short and summarize the main idea.
Repeated thoughts
Describes specific, observable things, people or places, rather than ideas or qualities.
Concrete Language
Specific observable things
Rather than the dictionary definition, the associations suggested by a word. Implied meaning rather than literal meaning or denotation.
Implied meaning
Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity.
Consonant sound
Word choice, particularly as an element of style. Different types and arrangements of words have significant effects on meaning.
Word choice
A term used to describe fiction or nonfiction that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking
Teaching specific lesson or moral
When the reader is aware of an inconsistency between a ficitonal or nonfictional character's perception of a situation and the truth of that situation.
Dramatic Irony
Reader aware of inconsistency
A quotation or aphorism at the beginning of a literary work suggestive of theme.
When a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument.
Same term in two different senses
Background information provided by a writer to enhance a reader's understanding of the context of a fictional or nonfictional story.
Background information
A word or words that are inaccurate literally, but describe by calling to mind sensations or responses that the thing described evokes. It may be in the form of metaphors or similies, both non-literal comparison.
Figuartive Language
Metaphors or similies
Conscious exaggeration used to heighten effect. Not intended literaly, it is often humorous.
The use of images, especially in a pattern of related images, often figurative, to create a strong, unified snesory impression.
When a reader is aware of a reality that differs from a character's pereception of reality.
Aware of reality
Comparison of two things, often unrelated. A figurative verbal equation results where both "parts" illuminate one another.
Unrelated comparisons
An atmosphere created by a writer's diction and the details selected. Syntax is also used.
Latin for "it does not follow." When one statement isn't logically connected to another.
Not logically connected
A writer's attempt to remove him/herself from any subjective, personal involvement in a story.
Removal of personal involvement
The use of a word whose pronunciation suggests its meaning. "Buzz," "hiss," etc.
"Buzz," "hiss"
A rhetorical antithesis. Juxtaposing two contraditory terms, like "wise fool" or "eloquent silence."
Rhetorical antithesis
A seemingly contradictory statement which is actually true. It is often used for emphasis or simply to attract attention.
Seemingly contradictory statement
Sentence construction which places in close proximity two or more equal grammatical constructions. It may be as simple as listing two ore three modifiers in a row to describe the same noun or verb; it may take the form of two or more of the same type of phrases that modify the same noun or verb; it may also take the form of two or more subordinate clauses that modify the same noun or verb.
Two or more equal grammatical constructions
An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes. The writer of a parody uses the quirks of style of imitated piece in extreme or ridiculous ways
Imitation of serious work
Qualities of fictional or nonfictional work that evoke sorrow or pity.
Sorrow or pity
Figurative language in which inanimate objects, animals, ideas, or abstractions are endowed with human traits or human form.
Human traits
The perspecitve from which a fictional or nonfictional story is told. First-person, third-person, or omniscient points of view are commonly used.
Point of View
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away form the real issue
Red Herring
Irrelevant issue
When a writer musters relevant opposing arguemnts.
Relevant opposing arguments