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84 Cards in this Set

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Social Stratification
refers to the way society is organized in layers of strata
what you earn in a given period
poor rich
these people earn more than $100,000 a year and still are stuggling to get by
Vetical Social mobility
refers to movement up or down the stratification system
Global Inequality
refers to differences in the economic ranking of countries
Crossnational Variations in the internal stratification
differences between countries in their stratification systems
Gini Index
a measure of income inequality. its value rranges form zero (which means that each household earns exactly the same amount) to 1 (which means that all income is earned by a single household)
stratification system is one in which the allocation of rank depends on the characteristics a person is born with
stratificaiton system is one in which the allocation of rank depends on a persons accomplishments
caste system
an almost pure ascription-based stratification system in which occupation and marriage partners are assigned on the basis of caste membership
was a caste system based on race that exsited in South Africa from 1948 until 1992. It cosigned the large black majority to menial jobs, prevented marriage between blacks and whites, and erected seperate public facilities from members of the two races. Asians and people of "mixed race" enjoyed privilages between the two extremes
a legal arrangment in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants tot he land and obliged them to give their landlords a set of the harvest. In exchange, landlords were required to protect peasants form marauders and open their storehouses and feed the peasants if crops failed
owners of the means of production, including factories, tools and land. they do not do any physical labor. Their income derives from profits.
in Marx's usage, is the working class members of the proletariat perform physical labor but do not own means of production. The are thus in a position to earn wages.
Petty Bourgeoisie
in Marx's usage, is the clsas of small-scale capitalists who own means of production but employ only a few workers or none at all, forcing them to do physical work themselves.
capitalist countries are rich countries, such as the US, Japan, and Germany, that are the major sources of capital and technology in the world
Countries are fomer colonies that are poor and are major sources of raw materials and cheap labor
countries, such as South Korea, Taiwan, and Israel, consist of former colonies that are making considerable headway in their attempts to industrialize
Neoliberal Globalization
the policy that promotes private contorl of industry, minimal governement interference in the running of the economy, the removal of taxes, tariffs, and restrictive regulations that discourage the international buying and selling of goods and servives, and the encouragement of foreign investment
and attitude that judges a persons on his or her groups real or imagined characteristics
unfair treatment of people due to their group membership
is a social construct used to distinguish people in terms of one or more physical markers, usually with profound effects on their lives
a disadvantaged person or category of people whom others blame for their own problems
ethnic group
composed of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. ethnic groups differ form one another in terms of language, religion, customs, values, ancestors and the like
Minority Group
a group of people who are socially disadvantaged although they may be in the numerical majority
Ethnich Enclave
a spatial concentration of ethnic group members who establish businesses that serve and emply mainly members of the ethnich group and reinvest profits in the community businesses and organizations
symbolic ethnicity
a nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation or that of the old country that is not usually incorporated in everday behavior
the belief that a visible characteristic of a group such as skin color, indicates group inferiority and justifies discrimination
institutional racism
bias that is inherent in social institutions and is often not noticed by member of the majority group
ecological theory
ethnic succession argues that ethnic groups pass through five stages in their struggle for teritory, invasion, resistance, competition, accommodation, and cooperation and assimilation
internal colonialism
incvolves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in teh same country. it prevents assimilation by segregating the subordinate group in terms of jobs, housing, and social contacts
Split Labor markets
low wage workers of one race and high-wage workers of another race compete for the same job. High-wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low-wage comptitors, and conflict is bound to result. consequently, racist attitudes develop or get reinforced
the forcible removal of a population from a teritory claimed by another population
the international extermination of an entire population defined as a "race" or a "people"
the ownership and control of people
Transnational communities
communities whose boundaries extend between countries
Hate Crimes
criminal acts motivated by a persons race, religion, or ethnicity
Affirmative action
a policy that gives preference to minority group members if equally qualified people are avallable for a position
the retention of racial and ethnic culture combined with equal access to basic social resources
people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption
people who occupy the same houseing unit
nuclear family
consists of a cohabiting man and woman who maintain a socially approved sexual relationship and have at least one child
Traditional Nuclear Family
a nuclear family in which the husband works outside the home for money and hte wife works for free in the home
a marriage in which a woman has more than one husband
marriage in which a man has more than one wife
expands the nuclear family "horizontally" by adding one or more spouses (usually women) to the household
Extended family
expands the nuclear family "vertically" by adding another generation- one or more of the spouses parents- to the household
a socially approved, presumably longterm, sexual and economic union between a man and a woman. It involves reciprocal rights and obligations between spouses and between parents and children
Divorce Rate
the number of divorces that occur in a year for every 1000 people in the population
Marriage rate
the number of marriages that occur in a year for every 1000 people in a population
total fertility rate
the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she had the same number of child as a woman in each age cohort in a given year.
Five main functions of marriage and the Nuclear Family
1) sexual regulation 2) Economic cooperation 3) Reproduction 4) socialization 5) emotional support
Who you will Fall in Love with-
1)marriage resources- include financial assets, status, values, tastes, and knowledge 2)Third Parties- varying degrees, families, neighborhoods, communitities, and religous institutions -who you fall in love with is determined by the influence of such third parites 3) Demographic and Compositional Factors
5 main factors underlying Marital Satisfaction
1) Economic Forces 2) Divorce Laws 3) Family Life circle 4)Housework and child care 5)Sex
Family life Circle
about a 1/4 og divorces take place in the first 3 yr. of a first marriage, and 1/2 of all divorces take place by the end of the 7th yr. For marriages that last longer, marital satisfaction reaches a low pt. after about 15-20yrs. Marital satisfaction generally starts high, fall when children are born, reaches a low pt when children are in their teenage yrs. and rises agian when children reach adulthood. Nonparents and parents whose children have left the home (empty nesters) enjoy the highest level of marital satisfation
3 Factors that account for much of the distress amound children of divorce
1)A high level of parental conflict 2)A decline in living standards 3)The absence of a parent
what you own. For most adults it includes a house (minus the mortgage), a car (minus the loan), and some appliances, furniture, and savings (minus the credit card balance)
what you earn in a given period
High-Tech Industry Helped to create a New Division at the Bottom of the Lower-Upper class- "Poor Rich"
The "poor rich" earn more than $100,000 a year and still struggle to get by. Although High-Tech industries helped to change patterns of social stratification in the US, the changes were not always positive
Foraging Societies
to survive they hunted wild animals and foraged for wild edible plants. Shared food. They produced little or nothing above what they require for subsistence. There were no rich or poor.
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
use small hand tools to cultivate plants. Domestication of animals. These technological innovations enabled people to produce wealth, a surplus above what they needed for subsistence. A small number of villagers controlled the surplus
Agrarian Societies
Developed plow agriculture. Increase the amount they produced. Again thanks to technological innovation, surpluses grew. More wealth came still sharper social stratification
Industrial societies
Raised living standards for the entire population. Businesses required a literate, numerate, and highly trained work force. To raise profits they were eager to identify and hire the most talented people. They encouraged everyone to develop their talents and reward them for doing so by paying higher salaries. Stratification declined as industrial societies develpoed
Postindustrial Societies
seem to be partly responsible for the trend toward growing inequality in the US. Too premature for a judgment on social inequality. Despite no conclusion on inequality it has been rising for about 25 years.
First Theory- a persons class is determined by the source of his or her income or to uses Marx's term by one's "relationship to the means of producion."
Status groups
differ form one another in terms of the prestige or social honor they enjoy and in terms of their lifestyle
In Webs usage are organizations that seek to impose their will on others
Functional theory of stratification
argues that (a) some jobs are more important than others, (b) people have to make sacrifices to train for important jobs, and (c) inequality is required to motivate people to undergo these sacrifices.
Socioeconomic index of occupational status (SEI)
- Blau and Duncan’s- combines for each occupation, average earning and years of education of men employed full time in the occupation
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
combines income, education, and occupation prestige data in a single index of one’s position in the socioeconomic hierarchy
Intragenerational mobility
social mobility that occurs within a single generation
Intergenerational mobility
social mobility that occurs between generations
structural mobility
the social mobility that results from changes in the distribution of occupations
in Marx’s sense of the term is determined by ones relationship to the means of production. In Weber’s usage class is determined by ones “market Situation”. Wright distinguishes classes on the basis of relationship to the means of production, amount of property owned, organizational assests, and skill. For Goldthorpe classes are determined mainly by ones employment relations
Poverty rate
is the percentage of people living below the poverty threshold, which is three times the minimum food budget established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
the economic domination of ones country by another
Global commodity chain
a worldwide network of labor and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity
Transnational corporations
large businesses that rely increasingly on foreign labor and foreign production; skills and advances in design, technology, and management; world markets; massive advertising campaigns. They are increasingly autonomous form national governments
a form of rationalization. Specifically, it refers to the spread of the principles of fast food restaurants, such as efficiency, predictability, and calculability, to all spheres of life.
the simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization
the division of the world into different and often competing economic, political, and cultural areas
the control of developing societies by more developed, powerful societies
Modernization theory
holds that economic underdevelopment results from poor countries lacking Western attributes. These attributes include Western values, business practices, levels of investment capital, and stable governments
Dependency Theory
views economic underdevelopment as the result of exploitative relations between rich and poor countries