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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a substance that undergoes a chemical change
reactant
a substance that is the result of a chemical
product
the energy stored within atoms and molecules that can be released when a substance reacts
chemical energy
a reaction that transfers energy from the reactants to the surroundings usually as heat.
exothermic reaction
a reaction in which energy is transferred to the reactants usually as heat from the surroundings
endothermic reaction
a reaction of atleast two substances that forms a new, more complex compound
synthesis reaction
a reaction in which one compound breaks into atleast two products
decompostion reaction
the decompostition of a compound by an electric current
electrolysis
a reaction in which a compound and oxygen burn
combustion reaction
a reaction in which atoms of one element take the place of atoms of another element in a compound
single-displacement reaction
a reaction in which a gas, a solid precipitate, or a molecular compound is formed from the apparent exchange of ions between two compounds
double-displacement reaction
a reaction that occurs when electroms from one reactant to another
reduction/oxidation (redox) reaction
the fragments of moecules that have atleast one electrom available for bonding
radicals
an equation that uses chemical formulas and symbols to show the reactants and products in a chemical reaction
chemical equation
the smallest relative number of moles of the substances involved in a reaction
mole ratio
a subsatnace that changes the rate of chemical reactions without being consumed
catalyst
a protein that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction
enzyme
the specific substance affected by an enzyme
substrate
the state in which a chemical reaction and its reverse occur at the same time and at the same rate
equilibrium
a general rule that describes the behavior of equilibrium systems
Le Chatelier's Principle
distance traveled divided by the time interval during which motion occured
speed
quantity describing both speed and direction
velocity
a quantity defined as the product of an object's mass and its velocity
momentum
change un velocity divided by the time interval in which the change occured
acceleration
the cause of acceleration, orchange in an object's velocity
force
forces acting on an object that combine to produce an net force equal to zero
balanced forces
forces acting on an object that combine to produce a net nonzero force
unbalanced foreces
the attraction between two particles of matter due to their mass
gravity
the tendency of an object to remain at rest or in motion with a constant velocity
inertia
the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on it
free fall
the maximum velocity reached by a falling object that occurs when the resistance of the medium is equal to the force due to gracity
terminal velocity
a quantity that measures the effects of a force acting over a distance
work
a quantity that measures the rate at which work is done
power
a quantity that measures how much a machine multiplies force or distance
mechanical advantage
one of the six basic types of machines of which all other machines are composed
simple machine
a machine made of more than one simple machine
compound machine
the stored energy resulting from the relative positions of objects in a system
potential energy
the energy of a moving object due to its motion
kinetic energy
the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of large-scale objects in a system
mechanical energy
a quantity, usually expressed as a percentage, that measures the ration of useful work output to work input
efficiency
a disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space
wave
the matter through which a wave travels
medium
a wave that requires a medium through which to travel
mechanical wave
a wave caused by a disturbance in electric and magnetic fields and that doesnt require a medium; also called a light wave
electromagnetic wave
a wave that causes the particles of the medium to vibrate parallel to the direction the wave travels
transverse wave
the highest point of a transverse wave
crest
the lowest point of a transverse wave
trough
the greatest distance that particles in a medium move from their normal position when a wave passes
amplitude
the distance between any two successive ientical parts of a wave
wavelength
the time required for one full wavelength to pass a certain point
period
the number of vibrations that occur in a one second time interval
frequency
a speed at which a wave passes through a medium
wave speed
an observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
Doppler Effect
the bouncing back of a wave as it meets a surface or boundary
reflection
the bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening
diffraction
the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another
refraction
the combination of two or more waves that exist in the same place at the same time
interference
any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller that the largest of the orignal waves
destructive interference
any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller than the largest of the original waves
contructive wave
a wave form caused by interference that appears not to move along the medium and that shows some regions of no vibration (nodes) and other regions of maximum vibrations (antinodes)
standing wave
the highest point of a transverse wave
crest
the lowest point of a transverse wave
trough
the greatest distance that particles in a medium move from their normal position when a wave passes
amplitude
the distance between any two successive ientical parts of a wave
wavelength
the time required for one full wavelength to pass a certain point
period
the number of vibrations that occur in a one second time interval
frequency
a speed at which a wave passes through a medium
wave speed
an observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
Doppler Effect
the bouncing back of a wave as it meets a surface or boundary
reflection
the bending of a wave as it passes an edge or an opening
diffraction
the bending of waves as they pass from one medium to another
refraction
the combination of two or more waves that exist in the same place at the same time
interference
any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller that the largest of the orignal waves
destructive interference
any interference in which waves combine so that the resulting wave is smaller than the largest of the original waves
contructive wave
a wave form caused by interference that appears not to move along the medium and that shows some regions of no vibration (nodes) and other regions of maximum vibrations (antinodes)
standing wave
an object so massive and dense that not even light can escape its gravity
blackhole
any of the nine primary bodies orbiting the sun; a similar body orbiting another star
planet
the sun and all the objects that orbit around it
solar system
a small, rocky object that orbits the sun, usually in a band between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
asteroid
a model that describes the sun and the solar system forming together out of a gas and dust
nebular model
the different apparent shapes of the moon or a planet due to the relative positions of the sun, earth, and the moon or planet
phases
an event that occurs when one object passes into the shadow of another object
eclipse