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23 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of the respiratory system?
The body system that is responsible for performing the task of getting oxygen into the body and removing carbon dioxide and water from the body.
Chapter 18-1, page 463
What is respiration?
The energy-releasing process that is fueled by oxygen.
Chapter 18-1, page 463
What is the epiglottis and what does it do?
A small flap of tissue that cuts off the opening to the trachea when you swallow to route all food and water down to your digestive system.
Chapter 18-1, page 464
What is the larynx, where is it located, and what is it made of?
The larynx is the voice box which is located at the top of trachea. The larynx is made of cartilage.
Chapter 18-1, page 465
What are the vocal cords and what is their use?
The vocal cords are folds of tissue within the lining of the larynx. Their use is to vibrate and with the movements of the mouth and toungue together, produce sound.
Chapter 18-1, page 465
What is the bronchus and what is the role of them in the respiratory system?
Bronchus is a tube that branches off of the trachea that keep branching into smaller and smaller tubes. Their role is to carry air until the air reaches the alveoli.
Chapter 18-1, page 465
What are the lungs?
The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. There is a right lung and a left lung. The left lung is smaller and therefore only has two chambers because the heart has to have room in the left side of the chest. The right lung is slightly bigger and has three chambers.
Chapter 18-1, page 465
What is the difference beween respiration and breathing?
Breathing is simply inhaling and exhaling. Respiration is an energy releasing process fueled by oxygen and food.
Chapter 18-1, page 463 and Chapter 18-1, page 466
Explain the struction and function of a nephron.
The nephron is like a tiny filtering station, which allows important components of the blood such as food and water to be reabsorbed into the blodd while waste products are concentrated in the nepron and eventually leave the kidneys through the ureters.
Name and describe the four organs of excretion.
Lungs-excrete water and carbon dioxide; skin-excretes salts, water, and urea; kidney- excretes urine;liver- helps to remove excess amino acids and stray bacteria from the blood.
Trace the path of excess water from the nephrons to the outside of the body.
Excess water passes from the nephron through the ureters to the urinary bladder. From the urinary bladder, urine passes out of the body through the urethra.
What is the diaphragm and what does it do?
The diaphragm is a muscle that pulls down the bottom of your chest when you are about to breathe, therefore working toghether with the muscles that make your ribs go out and up to make give you lungs room to expand.
Chapter 18-1, page 466
Trace an air molecule from the nose to a single alveolus. Explain in detail.
The air goes into you nostrils as you inhale. The air is quickly warmed by blood vessels in the nose. Mucus will moisten the air. Large and tiny hairs in the nose trap dust particles and microscopic organisms. The remaining air goes down your throat and down your trachea. Like the nose, there are little hairs in the trachea that trap dirt particles and bacteria that has gotten through the noses defenses. When the air reaches the bottom of the trachea, you find two tubes, or bronchi. Some air travels down one bronchus, some air goes down the other bronchus. If you go down one bronchus, you will find that it branches into many other tubes. Go down one of these tubes and you go to alveoli, which are small grape-like clusters in the lungs. You go into the alveoli and then into a single alveolus, where oxygen and carbon dioxide is exchanged into the many capillaries that surround the alveolus.
Chapter 18-1, page 462 to page 465
Define the Excretory System.
The Excretory System is the body system that povides a way for various wastes to be removed from the body.
Chapter 18-2, page 468
Define excretion.
Excretion is the removal process that the Excretory System goes through to remove the wastes it does.
Chapter 18-2, page 468
What are the kidneys?
The main organs of the excretory system.
Glossary, page 862
What is a nephron?
A nephron is the out section of a kidney and is a microscopic chemical filtering factory.
Chapter 18-2, page 468
What is the capsule?
The capsule is a cup-shaped part of the nephron that filtered substances and urea pass into. The capsule leads to a tiny twisting tube in the nephron.
Chapter 18-2, page 469
What is an ureter?
The ureters in your body are connected to a funnel-shaped cavity in your kidney. Urine is passed from this cavity, passes through the ureter, into theurinary bladder.
Chapter 18-2, page 469
What is the urinary bladder?
The urinary bladder is a muscular sac that holds the urine that is passed down to it from the ureter. The urinary bladder can expand with the urine. The urine stays in the urinary bladder until it goes through the urethra and out of the body.
Chapter 18-2, page 470
What is the urethra?
The Urethra is the tube that urine takes when it comes from the urinary bladder and then goes out of the body.
Chapter 18-2, page 470.
What is the liver and what role does it play in the excretory system?
The liver is a fairly large organ that acts as a filter for the blood that passes through it. While the liver does other excretory things, the liver removes excess amino acids. It also changes the hemoglobin from worn red blood cells into substances the body finds useful. Another thing it does is that it can turn some harmful poisons in the blood into harmless substances.
Chapter 18-2, page 470
What are the alveoli and what do they do?
Alveoli are grape-like clusters of tiny balloons in the lungs. Since they are surrounded by a network of capillaries and that the walls of the aleveoli are so thin, this is where oxygen passes into the bloodstream. This is also where the carbon dioxide waste is put into the lungs and gets out of the body.
Glossary, page 857