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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
construct
abstraction that cannot be observed directly, i.e. intelligence, personality, effectiveness, creativity
data
pieces of information collected to examine a topic
variable
construct that can take on two or more values or scores
instrument
tool used to collect data
measurement scale
instrument used to obtain a range of values or scores for each variable
nominal (categorical) variables
classify persons or object into two or more categories, i.e. male/female, married/divorced/ single
ordinal variables
classify and rank persons or objects
interval variables
classify and rank using equal intevals, i.e. test score of 88%
ratio variables
classify, rank in equal intervals with a true zero point, mostly used with physical measurements
dependent variable
effect
independent variable
cause, treatment
test
formal, sytematic, paper-and-pencil procedure
cognitive
acheivement, ability, reading
affective
attitudes, emotions, interests, values
assessment
process of collecting, sythesizing, interpreting info from formal or informal instruments
measurement
process of quantifying or scoring person's performance on assessments
performance assessment
authenthic or alternative assessment
raw score
number correct on a test, 78 out of 100 would be 78
norm-referenced test
scoring indicates how one student did compared to other students who took the test
criterion-referenced
scores compared against predetermined levels of performance
self-referenced
measures how an individual student's performance changes over time
cognitive test
measures intellectual processes, i.e. thinking, memorizing, problem solving, analyzing, reasoning
achievement test
measures how well students have learned what they have been taught in school
diagnostic test
measures student's strengths and weaknesses
aptitude test
used to predict how well a student will perform in the future
affective test
assesses feelings, values, attitudes toward self, others, actrivities, institutions, and situations
attitude scales
determine what an idivdual believes, perceives, or feels about self, others, etc.
Likert scale
participants respond to a statement indicating whether they strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree or strongly disagree
semantic differential scale
scale between two polar adjectives, i.e. necessary/unnecessary; fair/unfair, better/worse
rating scale
measures attitudes toward others
Thurston scale
measures attitude
Guttman scale
measures attitude and determines if it is munidmentsional, using a cumulative scale
interest inventory
determines an individual's like and dislikes ex. Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory and Kuder Preference Record-Vocational
Study of Values
test of individual's values
personality inventory
describes an individual's personality, i.e. Personality Adjective Checklist, California Psychological Inventory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Mooney Problem Checklist, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
response set
tendency of individual to continually respond in a particular way
bias
when respondent's race, gender, language, or religious orientation distorts their performance
projective test
answers are ambiguous and not obvious to the respondent, i.e. inkblot
validity
extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure
content validity
degree to which the test measures the intended content area
item validity
degree to which test items are relevant to the intended content area
sampling validity
how well the test samples the total content area being tested
concurrent validity
degree to which the scores on two test taken at about the same time are correlated
predictive validity
degree to which the scores on two tests taken at different times are correlated
criterion-related validity
determined by establishing a relatoinship between scores on the test and scores on some other established test or criterion
predictive validity
degree to which a test can predict how well an individual will do in a future situation
construct validity
degree to which a test reflects the construct it is intended to measure
consequential validity
measure possible harmful effects
reliability
degree to which a test consitently measures whatever it is measuring
reliability coeefficient
a perfectly reliable test would score a 1.00
stability
test, retest reliability, degree to which socres on the same test are consistent over time
equivalence
consistency between alternate forms of the test
internal consistency reliability
measures reliability one test at a time using split-half, Kuder-Richardson or Chronbach's alpha
split half reliability
breaking single test into two halves and correlating the two sets of scores
Kudar-Richardson
measures intennal consistency by determining how all items on a test relate to other test items and to the total test (multiple choice)
Cronbach's alpha
general formula on which K-R is based
score/rater reliability
degree to which scoring is reliable
interjudge reliability
scoring reliability of two ormore independent scoreers
intrajudge reliability
consistency of the scoring of a single judge over time
reliability coefficents
.90 is a high score
standard error of measurment
estimate of how often you can expect test errors of a given size