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82 Cards in this Set

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A group of close friends and political supporters whom President Warren G. Harding appointed to his cabinet.
Ohio gang
Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall's secret leasing of oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land.
Teapot Dome scandal
the act of buying stocks and bonds on the chance of a quick profit while ignoring the risks.
speculation
the act of paying a small percentage of a stock's price as a down payment and borrowing the rest.
buying on margin
October 29, 1929
the bottom fell out of the stock market.
Black Tuesday
a measure based on the prices of the stocks of 30 large companies, widely used as a barometer of the stock market's health.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
a law, enacted in 1930, that established the highest protective tariff in US history, worsening the depression in America and abroad.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
the region, including Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico, that was made worthless for farming by drought and dust storms during the 1930s
Dust Bowl
the giving of money or food by the government directly to needy people
direct relief
President Franklin Roosevelt's program to alleviate the problems of the Great Depression, focusing on relief for the needy, economic recovery, and financial reform.
New Deal
a law enacted in 1935 to provide aid to retirees, the unemployed, people with disabilities, and families with dependent children.
Social Security Act
an alliance of diverse groups-including Southern whites, African Americans, and unionized workers-who supported the policies of the Democratic Party in the 1930s and 1940s.
New Deal Coalition
a government's spending of more money than it receives in revenue.
defecit spending
a 1939 movie dealing with the life of Southern plantation owners during the Civil War-one of the most popular films of all time.
Gone with the Wind
a novel by John Steinbeck, published in 1939, that deals with a family of Oklahomans who leave the Dust Bowl for California.
The Grapes of Wrath
characteristic of a political system in which the government exercises complete control over its citizens' lives.
totalitarian
a political philosophy that advocates a strong, centralized, nationalistic government headed by a powerful dictator.
fascism
the political philosophy-based on extreme nationalism, racism, and militaristic expansionism-that Adolf Hitler put into practice in Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Nazism
opposition to political and economic entanglements with other countries.
isolationism
a series of laws enacted in 1935 and 1936 to prevent US arms sales and loans to nations at war.
Neutrality Acts
the granting of concessions to a hostile power in order to keep the peace.
appeasement
an agreement in which two nations promise not to go to war with each other
nonaggression pact
from the German word meaning "lightning war," a sudden, massive attack with combined air and ground forces, intended to achieve a quick victory.
blitzkrieg
the systematic murder-or genocide-of Jews and other groups in Europe by the Nazis before and during WWII.
1933-1945 11million dead
Holocaust
the deliberate and sytematic extermination of a particular racial, national, or religious group.
genocide
a prison camp operated by Nazi Germany in which Jews and other groups considered to be enemies of Adolf Hitler were starved while doing slave labor or were murdered.
concentration camp
the group of nations-including Germany, Italy, and Japan-that opposed the Allies in WWII.
Axis Powers
in WWII, the group of nations-including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States-that opposed the Axis powers.
Allies
a law, passed in 1941, that allowed the US to ship arms and other supplies, without immediate payment, to nations fighting the Axis powers.
Lend-Lease Act
a 1941 declaration of principles in which the US and Great Britain set forth their goals in opposing the Axis powers.
Atlantic Charter
a law, enacted in 1917, that required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service.
Selective Service Act
a name given to June 6, 1944-the day on which the Allies launched an invasion of the European mainland during WWII
D-Day
Man who lead the Third Army through a gap in German lines at D-Day and helped liberate the French capital from four years of German occupation.
General George Patton
a month-long battle of WWII, in which the Allies succeeded in turning back the last major German offensive of the war.
Battle of the Bulge
a name given to May 8, 1945, "Victory in Europe Day" on which General Eisenhower's acceptance of the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany marked the end of WWII in Europe.
V-E Day
a WWII battle that took place in early June 1942. The Allies decimated the Japanese fleet at an island lying northwest of Hawaii. The Allies then took the offensive in the Pacific and began to move closer to Japan.
Battle of Midway
a name given to the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, a 1944 law that provided financial and educational benefits for WWII veterans.
GI Bill of Rights
one of the Southern delegates who, to protest President Truman's civil rights policy, walked out of the 1948 Democratic National Convention and formed the States' Rights Democratic Party.
Dixiecrat
President Harry S. Truman's economic program-an extension of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal-which included measures to increase the minimum wage, to extend social security coverage, and to provide housing for low-income families.
Fair Deal
a major corporation that owns a number of smaller companies in unrelated businesses.
conglomerate
a business that has bought the right to use a parent company's name and methods, thus becoming one of a number of similar businesses in various locations.
franchise
the sharp increase in the US birthrate following WWII.
baby boom
a preoccupation with the purchasing of material goods.
consumerism
the designing of products to wear out or become outdated quickly, so that people will feel a need to replace their possessions frequently.
planned obsolescence
a social and artistic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literary self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture.
beat movement
the tearing down and replacing of buildings in rundown inner-city neighborhoods.
urban renewal
the US government's plan, announced in 1953, to give up responsibility for Native American tribes by eliminatin federal economic support, discontinuing the reservation system, and redistributing tribal lands.
termination policy
a country that is dominated politically and economically by another nation.
satellite nation
the blocking of another nation's attempts to spread its influence-especially the efforts of the US to block the spread of Soviet influence during the late 1940s and early 1950s.
containment
a US policy, announced by President Harry S. Truman in 1947, of providing economic and military aid to free nations threatened by internal or external opponents.
Truman Doctrine
the program, proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947, under which the US supplied economic aid to European nations to help them rebuild after WWII.
Marshall Plan
ten witnesses from the film industry who refused to cooperate with the HUAC's investigation of Communist influence in Hollywood.
Hollywood Ten
a congressional committee that investigated Communist influence inside and outside the US government in the years following WWII.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
a list of about 500 actors, writers, producers, and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood films because of their alleged Communist connections.
blacklist
the attacks, often unsubstantiated, by Senator Joseph McCarthy and others on people suspected of being Communists in the early 1950s.
McCarthyism
the hydrogen bomb-a thermonuclear weapon much more powerful than the atomic bomb.
H-bomb
the practice of threatening an enemy with massive military retaliation for any aggression.
brinkmanship
a US agency created to gather secret information about foreign governments.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites.
Warsaw Pact
a US commitment to defend the Middle East against attack by any communist country, announced by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1957.
Eisenhower Doctrine
the downing of a US spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960.
U-2 Incident
an 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal, thus establishing the "separate but equal" doctrine.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" education for black and whie students was unconstitutional.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, freeing the slaves in all regions behind Confederate lines.
Emancipation Proclamation
laws enacted by Southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities
Jim Crow laws
an organization formed in 1957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders to work for civil rights through nonviolent means.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
an organization formed in 1960 to coordinate sit-ins and other protests and to give young blacks a larger role in teh civil rights movement.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
a form of demonstration used by African Americans to protest discrimination, in which the protestors sit down in a segregated business and refuse to leave until they are served.
sit-in
one of the civil rights activists who rode buses through the South in the early 1960s to challenge segregation.
freedom rider
a law that banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
a law that banned discrimination in housing
Civil Rights Act of 1968
a law that made it easier for African Americans to register to vote by eliminating discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at the local level.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a 1964 project to register African-American voters in Mississippi
Freedom Summer
an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1868, that makes all persons born or naturalized in the US-including former slaves-citizens of the country and guarantees equal protection of the laws.
14th Amendment
an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1870, that prohibits the denial of voting rights to people because of their race or color or because they have previously been slaves.
15th Amendment
an amendment to the US Constitution, adopted in 1865, that has abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
13th Amendment
a policy that seeks to correct the effects of past discrimination by favoring the groups who were previously disadvantaged. "reverse discrimination"
affirmative action
a group that was appointed by President Johnson to study the causes of urban violence and that recommended the elimination of de facto segregation in American society.
Kerner Commission
a militant African-American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto.
Black Panthers
a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion
Nation of Islam
racial separation established by practice and custom, not by law.
de facto segregation
racial separation established by law
de jure segregation