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82 Cards in this Set

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¿cómo te relajas?

to go camping
acampar
¿cómo te relajas?

to ride bicycle
adar en bicicleta
¿cómo te relajas?

to bathe (in a jacuzzi)
bañarse (en el jacuzzi)
¿cómo te relajas?

to scuba dive
bucear
¿cómo te relajas?

to throw (have) a party
dar una fiesta
¿cómo te relajas?

to draw
dibujar
¿cómo te relajas?

to mt. climb
escalar montañas
¿cómo te relajas?

to ski
esquir
¿cómo te relajas?

to ski
in the water
on the mountains
esquir en el agua

esquir en las montañas
¿cómo te relajas?

to go camping
hacer camping
¿cómo te relajas?

to play ________
cards
golf
volleyball
jugar a las naipes

jugar al golf

jugar al voleibol
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO MEDITATE
meditar
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO SAIL
navegar en un barco
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO SKATE
patinar
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO FISH
pescar
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO JUMP ROPE
saltar a la cuerda
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO HAVE A PICNIC
tener un picnic
¿cómo te relajas?

how do you relax yourself? ________

TO GARDEN
trabajar en el jardín
¿cómo te relajas?

How do you relax yourself? ________

TAKE A WALK
dar un paseo
¿cómo te relajas?

How do you relax yourself? ________

TO GO TO CHURCH
ir a la iglesia
¿cómo te relajas?

How do you relax yourself? ________

TO READ
leer
¿cómo te relajas?

How do you relax yourself? ________

TO LIFT WEIGHTS
levantar pesas
Places - "lugares..."

the forest
el bosque
Places - "lugares..."

the desert
el desierto
Places - "lugares..."

the lake
el lago
Places - "lugares..."

the sea
el mar
Places - "lugares..."

the mountains
las montañas
Places - "lugares..."

the museum
el museo
Places - "lugares..."

the ocean
el océano
Places - "lugares..."

the park
el parque
Places - "lugares..."

the river
el río
otras palabras


funny
christoso(a)
otras palabras


comical
cómico(a)
otras palabras


funny, amusing
gracioso(a)
otras palabras


joke
el chiste
otras palabras


to laugh, laughter
la risa
otras palabras


free (spare) time
el tiempo libre
otras palabras


to make laugh
hacer reír
otras palabras


strike someone as funny
hacerle gracia a uno
otras palabras


to laugh loudly
reírse (i,i) a carajadas
otras palabras


to be funny, charming
tener gracia
imperfect conjugations for "ir" to go
yo íbamos
tu iba
el/ella iban
Ud

we iba
Uds. ibas
they all iba
imperfect conjugations for "ser" I am..
yo éramos
tu erais
el/ella eran
Ud

we era
Uds. eras
ellos era
last night
anoche
ayer
yesterday
ayer por la mañana
yesterday morning
yesterday afternoon
ayer por la tarde
yesterday last night
ayer por la noche
last weekend
el fin de semana pasado
(time) ago
hacer + (time)
a few years ago
hace unos años
several months ago
hace varios meses
last Saturday (Sunday)
el sábado (domingo) pasado
POINT IN TIME

I decided to stay home
decidí quedarme en casa

sound of the telephone
sóno el teléfono

I answered it
lo contesté

I heard the voice
oí la voz
POINT IN TIME

I decided to stay home
decidí quedarme en casa

sound of the telephone
sóno el teléfono

I answered it
lo contesté

I heard the voice
oí la voz
EVENT IN PROGRESS

it was bad weather
hacía mal tiempo
it rained
llovía
he/she didn't want
no tenía ganas
he/she looked at television
miraba la televisión
it seemed to be sad
parecía estar triste
EVENT IN PROGRESS

EVENT IN PROGRESS

it was bad weather
hacía mal tiempo
it rained
llovía
he/she didn't want
no tenía ganas
he/she looked at television
miraba la televisión
it seemed to be sad
parecía estar triste
The IMPERFECT tense is used:

Description : - time, date
-weather
-event
-age
-physical characteristics
-personality
-physical, mental, emotional state or condition
-set up the stage


On going action in the past

Repetitive / habitual action in the past

Duration of time (length of time)

2nd part of indirect discourse
The IMPERFECT tense is used:

Description : - time, date
-weather
-event
-age
-physical characteristics
-personality
-physical, mental, emotional state or condition
-set up the stage


On going action in the past

Repetitive / habitual action in the past

Duration of time (length of time)

2nd part of indirect discourse
IMPERFECT VERB TENSES FOR AR ER/IR

FLIP CARD
__AR verbs __ER & IR verbs
Yo__aba __ía

Tú__abas __ías

Él / Ella / Ud. __aba __ía

Nosotros / Nosotras __ábamos __íamos

Ellos / Ellas / Uds. __aban __ían
IMPERFECT TENSE...the description
The imperfect tense usually describes conditions, acts already in progress, habitual or ongoing activities, feelings, emotions, and mental or physical states. There is no reference to the beginning or the end of an action. These imperfect tense verbs frequently create the background in which the completed act preterite tense verb) occurred.
THE PRETERITE TENSE description
The preterite describes a completed act: the writer views it as over and done with, and the reader or listener knows how it turned out. It may focus on either the beginning or the end of an action, but the action or event is seen as complete.
the uses of imperfect tense:
Use the imperfect tense for:

* ongoing past acts or background conditions that do not focus on the completion, beginning or end.
* telling time in the past
* a customary or habitual past act
* descriptions of physical and mental conditions
* a series of repeated or habitual acts
the uses of preterite tense:
Use the preterite tense for:

* an entire completed act
* the beginning of a completed act
* the end of a completed act
* a series of specific completed acts
Particulars of Imperfect:
1. used to denote the middle of an action
2. use phrases such as:
2a. ("was speaking") to show that a single action continued
2b. "used to" construction to show that a series of separate actions continued
2c. show state of mind or body ("was," "thought," etc.) as ongoing in the past
Particulars of imperfect:
imperfect is used to denote the middle of an action
Particulars of Preterite:

preterite is used to indicate the beginning or the end of an action.
When one says, "I shut the door," on the other hand, by the time one says that, the door is already shut; the action has been completed.

The preterite is used to describe a series of discrete actions that occurred in sequence and then were over.
Particulars of the imperfect:

use of time
example: Of course, there are always some uses that do not necessarily fit the rule, such as the fact that one always tells time in the imperfect ("era la una"),
One verb -change the tense -meaning changes too...

Preterite versus imperfect
Verb Preterite
saber supe - "I found out"
conocer conocí - "I met"
querer quise - "I tried"
Particulars of Imperfect vs. Preterite when using the same verb and its tense changes
Verb Imperfect Pret.
saber sabía - supe -
"I knew" "I found out"

conocer conocía - conocí -
"I knew" "I met"

querer quería - quise -
"I wanted" "I tried"
Preterit:

1. Foreground / Focus event, often one which presents an independent event or advances the story line (cf. 2)

2. Achievement: start or completionis relevant; often momentary events. "Closed box" or "snapshot"--no subdivisions of the event are examined.

(flip to continue)
3. Sequential development

4. Repeated event with clear start and finish and a specific number of repetitions

5. Specific time references: ayer, el domingo, el año pasado
Imperfect

1. Background process on which a (completed) foreground event is "superimposed"

2. Duration, non-achievement--event viewed as ongoing, incomplete, or even interrupted ("was/were verb-ing"). "Open box" or "movie"--the event is subject to subdivision and examination

(flip to continue)
3. Simultaneous development

4. Habitual event ("used to", "would")

5. General time references: siempre, con frecuencia
Preterit Foreground Events: example

Ayer (llovió) todo el día. Por eso me (mojé).

Yesterday it rained the whole day. For that reason I wet myself.

flip for more...
a repeated action viewed as a single event with definite completion
EXAMPLE:(Toqué) tres veces a la puerta, pero (no vino) nadie.

I knocked three times on the door, but nobody didn't come.
Preterit
[preterit for series of events, "sequential development"]


Anoche (cené) a las seis. Luego (fui) a la biblioteca donde me (quedé) tres horas estudiando. Después (volví) a la residencia y me (acosté) a las diez y media.
Anoche cené a las seis. Luego fui a la biblioteca donde me quedé tres horas estudiando. Después volví a la residencia y me acosté a las diez y media.
Preterit:("I met"--preterit for focus event, "became acquainted with" = "met")

a Rodrigo cuando (conocí) a su hermana.

flip for more explanations
Anoche supo ("he found out") que hoy no tenemos examen. [special translation of saber in preterit--start to know" = "find out"]

translation:
Last night he/she knew ("there is found out") that today we don't have exam. [special translation of to know in preterit--start to know" = "find out"]
Imperfect: examples

Background information:
Ya llovía [background] cuando me levanté. (trans: it rained when I got up)

Habitual:
En la secundaria tocaba [habitual] la guitarra casi todos los días. (trans: secondly, he/she played the guitar almost everyday.)

flip for more...
Simultaneous Events: Mientras yo te esperaba, tú estabas en tu cama durmiendo. [imperfect for ongoing simultaneous events] Translation: (While I waited for you, you were in your bed sleeping.)
Imperfect Tense

Comprar Vender Recibir
yo/compraba vendía recibía
tú/comprabas vendías recibías
él, ella, Ud./
compraba vendía recibía
nosotros/
comprábamos vendíamos recibíamos
vosotros
comprabais vendíais recibíais
ellos/
compraban vendían recibían

example of imperfect...flip
Example:

El gerente negociaba con los vendedores.

The manager used to (would) negotiate with the vendors.

The manager was negotiating (in the process of) with the vendors.***

The manager negotiated (repeatedly) with the vendors.

NOTE in the above example, the imperfect is also used to describe a past action, which is still going on in the past, or an action whose beginning and ending are NOT specified or important. ***The equivalent in English is was or were + present participle.

To communicate the same idea in English, the phrases used to or would, past continuous, or simple past are used.
The imperfect tense

is used to describe physical conditions or characteristics of people and things in the past:

EXAMPLES

La compañía tenía muchos problemas económicos./ The company had a lot of economic problems.
El hijo de Susana era muy inteligente./ Susan's son was very intelligent

flip for more examples
3. It is also used to express ongoing emotional or mental states, desires and opinions in the past:

EXAMPLES

Nuestra casa matriz quería fusionar nuestra sucursal con otra compañía./

Our parent company wanted to merge our branch with another company.

Los trabajadores se sentían felices con el nuevo jefe./

The workers were happy with their new boss.

Nosotros creíamos que la fusión no funcionaba./

We believed that the merger was not working.
. The imperfect is used to express time or age in the past:

EXAMPLES

Eran las tres de la tarde./ It was 3 o'clock in the afternoon.


Tenía un año cuando nos mudamos a la Argentina./ I was a year-old when we moved to Argentina.
5. The imperfect is used with the conjunction mientras/ while to express 2 or more ongoing and simultaneous actions:

EXAMPLE

La empresa quería expandir el mercado mientras que el departamento de justicias la demandaba./ The company was trying to expand its market while the Justice Department was suing them.
Imperfect:

6. It is also used to describe a scene in the past:

EXAMPLES

La noche estaba calurosa./ The night was hot.
El paisaje era maravilloso./ The scenery was marvelous.
NOTE that the following expressions reflect a habitual or repeated action, which often require the use of the imperfect tense:

siempre/ always, con frecuencia/ with frequency, generalmente/ generally, todos los días (horas, meses, años)/ every day (hour, month, year), and por lo general/ in general.

EXAMPLES

Siempre llovía en Londres./ It always rained in London.

Pedíamos préstamos con frecuencia./ Frequently, we would ask for loans.

Generalmente me sacaba un diez (10) en matemáticas./ Generally, I used to get an A in math.

Todos los días, tomábamos mate en la Argentina./ Every day we used to drink green tea in Argentina.

Por lo general, vendíamos mucho antes de Navidad./ In general, we used to sell a lot before Christmas.
7. Imperfect Tense: Irregular Verbs.



IR SER VER/ to see
yo/iba era veía
tú/ibas eras veías
él, ella, Ud
iba era veía
nosotros/
íbamos éramos veíamos
vosotros/
ibais erais veíais
ellos/
iban eran veían
go to next card
DIFERENCES BETWEEN THE PRETERIT AND THE IMPERFECT

Poder/ to be able to

El inmigrante ilegal podía trabajar a escondidas./ The illegal immigrant was able to work secretly. IMPERFECT

Él pudo trabajar./ He did manage to work. (It adds more emphasis)PRET.

Conocer/ to meet

El socio conocía a todos los empleados./ The partner used to know all of the employees. IMPERFECT

Él conoció a todos los empleados el mes pasado./ He met all of the employees last month. PRET.
Saber/ to know

Sabía la clave de acceso./ I knew the password. IMPERFECT

Supe la clave de acceso./ I found out the password. PRET.

Querer/ to want, desire

Mi cuñada no quería mudarse a los Estados Unidos./ My sister-in-law did not want to move to the US. IMPERFECT

Ella no quiso mudarse./ She refused to move. PRET.
IDIOMATIC USES OF THE IMPERFECT

The imperfect is used to form idiomatic expressions, such as acabar de and hacía + time + que + imperfect tense:

1. Acabar de describes an action that "had just been done:"

Acabábamos de comer asado./ We had just eaten some barbecue.

2. hacía + time + que + imperfect tense is used in time expression:

Hacía unos años que no íbamos al zoológico./ For many years, we had not been going to the zoo.
GO TO NEXT CARD
PRETERIT:

Comprar Vender Recibir
yo/compré vendí recibí
tú/
compraste vendiste recibiste
él, ella, Ud.
compró vendió recibió
nos./
compramos vendimos recibimos
vos./
comprasteis vendisteis recibisteis
ellos, Uds./
compraron vendieron recibieron
FLIP TO NEXT CARD
EXAMPLES of PRETERIT:

Ana abrió la puerta y salió volando./ Ana opened the door and left swiftly.

Esta mañana empezó a llover./ This morning it started to rain.

Llovió ayer. It rained yesterday. (AND MEANS) It did rain yesterday.

NOTE: There is NO equivalent for the English auxiliary did.
Did the interest increase?
¿Subió el interés?
¿El interés subió?
Subject and the verb are inverted or the interrogative intonation is used.

flip for more...
3. The preterite can be used to interrupt an action in the imperfect tense (IT).

EXAMPLE Trabajábamos (IT) intensamente cuando anunciaron los despidos masivos./ We were working intensely when they announced the massive lay-offs.