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23 Cards in this Set

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Run Off
rain water that flows off the land into streams,rivers,and Bay,rather than soaking into ground.
Native species
Species which have lived in particular region or area for an extended period of time.
Buffer Zone
Vegetation that separates and protects a waterway from human activites and helps filter out pollutants before they reach the waterway.
Bioaccumulation
when contaminants accumalate in the tissues of a living creature,typically increasing in concentration as they move through the food chain.
Algae
Simple rootless plants that grow in bodies of water (e.g. estuaries).
SAV (Submerged Underwater Grasses)
see submerged aquatic vegetation.
Phosphorus
(P) A key nutrient for plant growth in the Bay's ecosystem,which can cause eutrophication when in excess.
Nitrogen
(N) is used primarily by plants and animals to make protein. Excess can cause eutrophication. Comes from agricultural run off and sewage.
Nutrients
Chemicals ( primarily nitrogen and phosphorus) dissolved in water which are essential to both plants and animals. Too many nutrients abt as pollutants and can lead to algae blooms that cloud the water and rob it of oxygen critical to most forms of aquatic life. Sewage treatment plants,industries,vehicle exhaust,acid rain,and runoff from agricultural,residential and urban areas are sources of nutrients entering the Bay.
Turbidity
The decreased clarity in a body of water due to the concentration of sediment and plankton. Turbidity is measured using a Secchi disk.
pH
Measure of the acidity or basicity of water. Bay water is naturally slightly basic. pH is measured on a scale of 0-14. Less than 7 is acidic,over 7 is basic,and 7 is neutral.
Brackish
Somewhat salty water,as in an estuary.
Watershed
an area of land that drains to a particular body of water.
Point Source Pollution
A source of pollution that can be attributed to a specific physical location. The majority of point source discharges for nutrients are from wastewater treatment plants, although some come from industries.
Estuary
A semi-enclosed body of water that has a free connection with the open sea and within which seawater (from the ocean) is mixed with fresh water (from the land and rivers).
Non-Point source
A source of pollution that cannot be attributed to clearly identifiable,specific physical location. This includes the nutrients that run off the ground from any land use- crop lands,lawns,parking lots,streets,forests,etc. It also includes nutrients that enter through air pollution,the groundwater,or from septic systems.
Introduced species
Species which have been intentionally or inadvertently brought into a region or area. Also called exotic species.
Dissolved Oxygen
Microscopic bubbles of oxygen that are mixed in the water. dissolved oxygen is necessary for a healthy estuary.
Salinity
A measure of the salt concentration of water. Usually measured in parts per thousand (ppt). 35 ppt is average for seawater,0 ppt for fresh water
Airshed
the geographic area responsible for emitting 75% of the air pollution reaching a body of water. The Chesapeake Bay's airshed reaches north into Canada,west into Indiana and south into South Carolina.
Tributary
A body of water flowing into a larger body of water. for example, the James river is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay.
Sedimentation
Matter that settles and accumulates on the bottom of a body of water.
Erosion
The disruption and movement of soil particles by wind,water,or ice either occuring naturally or as a result of land use.