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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
alternative forms of a gene for each variation of an organism
pairs of matching homologous chromosomes in somatic cells
cell with two of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a ______, or 2n, number of chromosomes
observed trait of an organism that masks the recessive form of a trait
dominant [trait]
branch of biology that studies heredity
combination of genes in an organism
cell with one of each kind of chromosome; is said to contain a haploid or n, number of chromosomes
passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
when there are two different alleles for a trait
when there are two identical alleles for a trait
Mendelian priniciple statin that genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
law of independent assortment
Mendelian principle explaining that because each plant has two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles
law of segregation
outward appearance of an organism, regardless of its genes
transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower
trait of an organism that can be masked by the dominant form of a trait
in humans, the 23rd pair of chromosomes; determines the sex of an individual and carry sex-linked characteristics
sex chromosome
characteristic that is inherited; can be either dominant or recessive
pattern of reproduction that involves the production and subsquent fusion of haploid sex cells
sexual reproduction
haploid male sex cells produced by meiosis
traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes
sex-linked trait
inheritance pattern of a trait controlled by two or more genes; genes may be on the same or different chromosomes
polygenic inheritance
failure of homologous chromosomes to seperate properly during meiosis; results in gametes with too many or too few chromosomes
type of a cell division where one body cell produces four gametes each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parents body cell
presence of more that two alleles for a genetic trait
mulitple alleles
inheritance pattern where the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes; neither allele of the pair is dominant but combine and display a new trait
incomplete dominance
offspring formed by parents having different forms of a trait
paired chromosomes with gened for the same traits arranged in the same order
homologous chromosome
major source of genetic variation among organisms caused by reassortment or crossing over during meiosis
genetic recombination
a developing mammal from nine weeks to birth
fusion of male and female gametes