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139 Cards in this Set

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branch of chemistry which is concerned with the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy, and vice versa
electrochemical cells, electrolytic cells, redox
oxidation reaction
half-reaction in which a species loses electrons
LEO the lion says GER
reduction reaction
half-reaction in which a species ganes electrons
LEO the lion says GER
oxidizing agent
substance which is reduced during an electrochemical reaction
Pb2+ + 2e- -> Pb(s)
reducing agent
substance which is oxidized during an electrochemical reaction
Pb(s) -> Pb2+ + 2e-
half-cell reaction
isolated reduction reaction or oxidation reaction
Mg2+ + 2e- -> Mg(s)
redox reaction
reaction involving the loss and gain of electrons
F2(g) + 2Li(s) -> 2F- + 2Li2+
oxidation number
charge that an atom would possess if the species containing the atom were made up of ions
O.N. of O = -2
O.N. of H = +1
O.N. halogens = -1
O.N. alkali = +1
O.N. alkaline earth = +2
spontaneous redox reaction
reaction which occurs by itself, without outside assistance
O.A > R.A
Major Hydroxide
when balancing half-reactions, balance Major species, then O atoms (with water), then H atoms (with protons), then charge (with electrons)
Major OH-
disproportionation reaction
redox reaction in which the same species is both reduced and oxidized
difference between ON of two species (ON of product - ON of reactant)
ΔON of Pb2+ -> Pb(s) = -2
redox titration
titration using redox reaction
if you know [AuCl4-], you can determine the [Cr2+] by performing a redox reaction
potassium permanganate
used as an oxidizing agent in titrations, purple in solution, strong oxidizing agent
conductor at which half-reaction occurs
Pt inert electrode
molecular compound
compound which is bonded covalently and tends to produce non-ionic solutions
C6H12O6(s) -> C6H12O6(aq)
ionic compound
compound which is bonded ionically and tends to produce ionic solutions
Na2SO4(s) -> 2Na+(aq) + SO42-(aq)
substance which dissolves to give an electrically conducting solution containing ions
HCl(g) -> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
substance which dissolves to give a non-conducting solution containing only neutral molecules
C2H2(g) -> C2H2(aq)
maximum amount of a substance which can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a given temperature; equilibrium [] of a substance in a solution at a given temperature
g/L, mol/L
molar solubility
molar [] of a saturated soltuion (mol/L)
molar solubility of lead (II) iodided is 0.00137 M
saturated solution
solution in which a dissolved substance is in EQ with some of the undissolved substance
CaSO4 <-> Ca2+ + SO42-
dissociation reaction/dissolving reaction
process of dissolving; opposite of a crystallization reaction; when an ionic compound dissolves into its ions
FeCl3(s) -> Fe3+ + 3Cl-
ionization reaction
reaction in which a polar covalent solid dissolves to form ions
(NH4)3PO4(s) -> 3NH4+(aq) + PO43-(aq)
crystallization reaction
porcess in which a substance in solution forms crystals of a solid; opposite of a dissolving reaction
Ag+(aq) + BrO3-(aq) -> AgBrO3(s)
low solubility
solubility possessed by a substance which produces a saturated solution having a [] of less than 0.1 M
AgCl, CuI, PbBr2, etc.
solid which forms in a reaction involving aqueous reactants
supernatant is above the precipitate
spectator ion
ions which do not take part in a reaction; if a solubility EQ, the ions do not form a precipitate
Na+, NO3-, etc.
clear liquid that remains above a sediment/precipitate
supernatant is above the precipitate
smaller sample from a larger sample; usually a liquid
vile of sea water
formula equation
balanced chemical equation in which all the reactants and products are given by their chemical formulae
2AgNO3 + Na2CO3 -> Ag2CO3(s) + 2NaNO3
complete ionic equation
balanced chemical equation in which all soluble ionic species are shown broken into their respective ions
2Ag+ + 2NO3- + 2Na+ + CO32- -> Ag2CO3(s) + 2Na+ + 2NO3-
qualitative analysis
use of experimental procedures to determine which elements or ions are present in a substance
solution contains Ag+, Pb2+, or Cu+ if it forms a precipitate with Cl-
solubility product expression
EQ expressions for a salt in EQ with its dissolved ions, having the form Ksp = [A+][B-]
Ksp BaCO3 = [Ba2+][CO32-]
solubility product constant
numerical value of Ksp in the solubility product expression Ksp = [A+][B-]
Ksp BaCO3 = 2.6 x 10-9
trial ion product
product of the ion []s which actually exist in solution, having the form Q = [A+][B-]and used for comparisons with the value of Ksp to decide if a solution is saturated
Q<Ksp, no ppt; Q=Ksp, ppt just forms, Q>Ksp, ppt forms
process in which a measured amount of a solution is reacted with a known volume of another solution until a desired equivalence/stoichiometric point is reached (one of the solutions has an unkown [])
determining [Cl-] by adding a known [Ag+] and using CrO4 to signal when the titration is complete
equivalence/stoichiometric point
point in a titration where the stoichiometry of the reaction is exactly satisfied
in reaction Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) <-> AgCl(s), when the ratio is 1:1:1
permanently hard water
water which contains Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ and does not contain HCO3-
can't soften by boiling
temporarily hard water
water which contains Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ and HCO3-
can soften by boiling
stearate ion
C17H35COO-, commonly found in soaps
reacts with Mg2+/Ca2+ to form a precipitate
common ion effect
lowering of the solubility of a salt by adding a second salt which has one ion in common with the first salt
to decrease the solubility of AgCl, add AgNO3
Arrhenius acid
substance which releases H+(aq) in water; any ionic species whose formula starts with "H"
HCl, HClO4, etc.
Arrhenius base
substance which releases OH-(aq) in water; any ionic species whose formula ends with "OH"
NaOH, Cr(H2O)5(OH)2+, etc.
Bronsted-Lowry acid
substance which donates a proton to another substance
NH4+ + H2O <-> H3O+ + NH3
Bronsted-Lowry base
substance which accepts a proton from another substance
SO4- + H2O <-> HSO4- + OH-
strong acid
acid which is 100% dissociated in solution
HI -> H+ + I- (no EQ)
strong base
base which is 100% dissociated in solution
NH2 + H+ -> NH3 (no EQ)
weak acid
acid which is less than 100% ionized in solution
HCOOH <-> H+ + HCOO- (EQ)
weak base
base which is less than 100% ionized in solution
CO32- + H+ <-> HCO3- (EQ)
conjugate acid
member of a conjugate pair which has the extra proton
HC2O4- vs. C2O42-
conjugate base
member of a conjugate pair which lacks the extra proton
HPO42- vs. H2PO4-
conjugate pair
pair of chemical species which differ by only one proton
HC2O4- and C2O42-
basic particle in an atomic nucleus that has a positive charge
H+ has no electrons
hydronium ion
H3O+; this is what is produced when acids react with water
HCl + H2O -> Cl- + ?
acid which can supply one proton
acid which can supply up to two protons
acid which can supply more than one proton
subtance which can act as either an acid or a base; apart from water, they start with "H" and have a - charge
H3PO4 -> H2PO4- -> HPO42- -> PO43-
-log[H3O+]; measure of the acidity of a substance (the [H3O+] of a substance)
pH of 4 is acidic, pH of 7 is neutral, pH of 10 is basic
-log[OH-]; measure of the alkalinity of a substance (the [OH-] of a substance)
pOH of 4 is basic, pOH of 7 is neutral, pOH of 10 is acidic
[OH-][H3O+] = 1.00 x 10-14; Ka x Kb
Kw of water = 1.00 x 10-14
acid ionization constant; [H3O+][A-]/[HA]
Ka = Kw/Kb
base ionization constant; [HA][OH-]/[A-]
Kb = Kw/Ka
pH + pOH = 14.000 = -log(Kw)
pKa of hydrogen peroxide = -log(2.4x10-12) = 11.62
pKb of fluorine ion = -log(1.0x10-14/3.5x10-4) = 10.54
a process in which a measured amount of a solution is reacted with a known volume of another solution (one of solutions has unkown []) until a desired EQ point is reached
25 mL of H2SO4 titrated with 0.2 M NaOH; [H2SO4] = ?
transition/end point
point in a titration at which an indicator is half-way through its colour change
transition point when [HIn]=[In-]
titration curve
graph showing the change in pH which occurs when an acid is titrated with a base, or vice versa
when titrating strong acid with strong base, graph is steady, then does a sharp increase, then levels off
pH=pOH (7); [H3O+]=[OH-]; when an acid and a base react to form water and a neutral salt
NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O
neutralization product which results when an acid and a base react; any ionic compound which is neither acid nor base
reaction between water and the cation/anion (or both) contained in the salt so as to produce an acidic/basic solution
NaNO2 -> Na+ + NO2-; NO2- is a base, so the solution is basic
acidic salt
salt which when put in water dissociates to produce an acidic solution
NaHC2O4 -> Na+ + HC2O4-
basic salt
salt which when put in water dissociates to produce a basic solution
NaHS -> Na+ + HS-
primary standard
substance which can be obtained in a pure and stable form, which doesn't absorb water or CO2 from the air, and which has a known molar mass such that it can be used to prepare a solution of know []
KHC8H4O4 (potassium hydrogen phthalate)
standard solution
a solution with an accurately known []
a primary standard titrated with a solution creates a standard solution
weak organic acid/base with different colours for its conjugate acid and base forms
phenolphtalein, bromythol blue, etc.
indicator which turns from colourless to pink at pH of 8.2-10.0
mixing phenolphthalein with seawater makes it turn pink
suitable indicator
an indicator used in a titration that has an end/transition point pH about equal to the titration's equivalence/stoichiometric point pH
EQP of titration of NaOH and HCl = pH 7, suitable indicator = bromythol blue, with end pt. pH of 6.8
acid rain
any precipitation with a pH less than 5.6
naturally occuring rain water can be pH 5.6
solution containing appreciable amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base
acidic buffer solution
solution which buffers the pH in the acidic region
CH3COOH + H2O <-> CH3COO- + H3O+ keeps pH @ 4.74
basic buffer solution
solution which buffers the pH in the basic region
NH4+ + H2O <-> NH3 + H3O+ keeps pH @ 9.25
caustic soda or lye
very corrosive; very exothermic reaction with water; deliquesces rapidly; absorbs CO2(g) from air rapidly; found in cleaning products (oven cleaner and drain cleaner); used to make sodium salts, glass, pulp and paper, plastics, aluminum, soap
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
oil of vitriol or battery acid
dehydrating agent; very exothermic reactino with water; []ed form chars some types of organic material (sugars); reacts with some metals; good electrolyte; used to make sulphates, fertilizers, explosices, dyes, insecticides, detergents, plastics; used in car batteries as an electrolyte; used to absorb water
sulphuric acid (H2SO4)
muriatic acid
good electrolyte; []ed solution has choking odour; reacts with some metals; used to make chlorides; used as metal cleaning product (removing "boiler scale"); catalyst in some reactions; "stomach acid"
hydrochloric acid (HCl)
vinegar (5% aqueous solution)
non-electrolyte when []ed; weak electrolyte when diluted; only affects highly reactive metals; used to make acetates, textiles, plastics; used to preserve food
acetic acid (CH3COOH)
nitric acid
colours protein yellow; very reactive, quickly attacks almost all metals; used to make nitrates, fertilizers, explosives, dyes
nitric acid (HNO3)
ammonia ("ammonium hydroxide")
colourless; highly toxic; corrosice gas; pungent odour; highly soluble in water; exothermic reaction with water; used to make nitric acid, explosives, ferilizers, synthetic fibres; used as refrigeration gas
ammonia (NH3)
caustic potash
much the same as NaOH but melts at lower temperature; used to make liquid soap, potassium salts; electrolyte in alkaline batteries; used to absorb CO2
potassium hydroxide (KOH)
electrode at which oxidation occurs; electrode receiving the elctrons from a substance being oxidized; electrode toward which anions travel; electrode from which electrons leave to flow to the cathode
"An Ox CaRed"
electrode at which reduction occurs; electrode supplying electrons to a substance being reduced; electrode toward which cations travel; electrons flow here from anode
"An Ox CaRed"
electrical potential
potential energy per unit charge associated with a static electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts; electric potential may be conceived of as "electric pressure" that can push electric charges to different locations
tendency for electrons to migrate in an electrochemical cell
standard reduction potential (Eº)
voltage of a reduction reaction occuring in an electrochemical cell where all reactants and products are at 1.0M [] or 1 atm pressure
s.r.p. for Ag+ + e- <-> Ag(s) = +0.80 V
cell potential
amount of volts an electrochemical cell can produce
Eºcell = Eºred - Eºox
preferred reaction
when given a group of species, the reaction that involves the species with the highest strenght as an O.A. and the highest strength as an R.A.
Fe3+ will reduce before Cu2+
lead-acid storage battery
storage battery using lead (Pb) and lead peroxide (PbO2 ) as the electrodes and an electrolyte solution of water and sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
car battery
fuel cell
electrochemical device into which fuel is continuously fed and from which electricity is continuously ontained
hydrogen fuel cell
cathodic protection
term applied to the process of protecting a substance from unwanted oxidation by connecting it to a substance having a higher tendency to oxidize
putting a chunk of zinc on an iron boat hull
process of supplying electrical energy to a molten ionic compound or to a solution containing ions so as to produce a chemical change
using an electrolytic cell
inert electrode
electrodes which do not undergo any change during electrolysis
platinum, carbon, etc.
overpotential effect
fact that some species react before water, even though they may have a weaker electrical potential
Br- and Cl- react before H2O as reducing agents
electrolytic process in which a metal is reduced or "plated out" at a cathode, and having the purpose of covering the underlying material
plating iron with a layer of gold
process of purifying a metal by electrolysis
purifing pig iron into pure iron
only commercial ore of aluminum, corresponding to the formula Al2O3xH2O
where to get aluminum
activated complex
intermediate molecule which occurs when reactants are in the process of rearranging to form products
OH- + H3O+ = H4O2
activation energy
minimum P.E. required to change reactants into an activated complex
Ea = 159 kJ
bond energy
amount of energy required to break a bond between two atoms
energy to break SO4 into S and O4
chemical which can be added to a reaction to increase the rate of reaction; substance which provides an overall reaction with an alternative mechanism having a lower activation energy
platinum in car exhausts
closed system
system which nothing can enter or leave
stopped flask of a substance
collision/kinetic molecular theory
theory stating that molecules act as small, hard spheres which bounce off each other and transfer energy among themselves during their collisions
analogy of kids bling folded bumbing around in a square room
dynamic equilibrium
equilibrium situation in which microscopic changes occur, but macroscopic changes don't
elementary process
individual step in a reaction mechanism
HBr + O2 -> HOOBr
endothermic reaction
reactino which absorbs heat, so that products have more energy than reactants
ax + by + heat -> bx + ay; ax + by -> bx + ay, ∆H:+
total kinetic and potential energy which exists in a system when it is at constant pressure
amount of randomness in a system
gases>aqueous ions>liquids>solids
situation which exists when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction in a reversable reaction
[reactants] and [products] remain constant
equilibrium constant
numerical value of Keq in the equilibrium expression: [products]/[reactants]
14, products favoured
equilbrium expression
ratio of the [products] divided by the [reactants]
A2 + B3 <-> C3 + D2; Keq = [A]2[B]3/[C]3[D]2
exothermic reaction
reaction which gives off heat, so that products have less energy than reactants
ax + by -> bx + ay + heat; ax + by -> bx + ay, ∆H:-
heterogenous reaction
reaction in which all the reactnats are present in different phases
solid + solid, solid + liquid, 2 immiscible liquids, etc.
homogenous reaction
reaction in which all the reactnats are in the same phase
gas + gas, 2 miscible liquids, 2 aqueous solutions, etc.
chemical which reduces a reaction rate by combining with a catalyst or one of the reactants in such a way as to prevent the reaction form occuring
kinetic energy
energy which a system possesses because of movement within the system
running person
le Chatelier's principle
states that is a closed system at equilibrium is subjected to change, processes will occur that tend to counteract that change
increasing the concentration of reactants, reaction moves to product side
macroscopic changes
visible, or large scale changes
opposite of microscopic changes
nature of the reactant
term used to describe the chemical properties of a substance
H2O is a polar molecule with the O end negative and the H end positive
open system
system which substances can either enter or leave
an open flask
overall reaction
sum of all the steps in a reaction mechanism
4HBr + O2 -> 2H2O + 2Br2
potential energy
energy existing as a result of an object's position in space, as well as the sum of all the attractive and repulsive forces existing among the particles which make up the object
stretched elastic band
rate-determining step
slowest step in a reaction mechanism
reaction intermediate
molecules which are produced in one step of a reactino mechanism and subsequently consumed in another step
reacton kinetics
study of the rates of reactions and the factors which affect the rates
reaction mechanism
actual sequence of steps which make up an overall reaction
HBr + O2 -> HOOBr
HBr + HOOBr -> 2HOBr
2HBr + 2HOBr -> 2H2O + 2Br2
reaction quotient
"trial value" for equilibrium expression, used for comparison with the value for Keq to decide if a system is at equilibrium
Q > Keq, reaction will shift to reactants to establish EQ; Q = Keq, reaction at EQ; Q < Keq, reaction will shift to products to establish EQ
reaction rate
amount of a reactant or product involved in a reaction in a specific time
spontaneous reaction
reaction which occurs by itself, without outside assistance
max. entropy, min. enthalpy