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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a person who received a grant of land from lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and services
a family's payment of 1/10th of its income to a church
a mock battle between groups pf knights
a medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place entertaining people with songs of country love
one of the Christian ceremonies in which God's grace is transmitted to people
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
a medieval peasant legally bound to live on a lord's estate
a lord's estate in feudal Europe
lay investiture
the appointment of religious officails by kings or nobles
in medieval Europe an armored warrior who fought on horse back
Carolingian dynasty
a dyansty of frankish rules lasting from A.D 751 to 987
the taking away of a person's tight of membership in a Christian church
many sacraments and religious services could not be performed in the king's lands
1.Pope Benedict 2.Gregory I, also called Gregory the Great
an Italian monk began writing a book describing a strict yet practical set of rules for monasteries. 2. broadened the authority of the papacy, or pope's office, beyond its spiritual role. Gregory used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. He also negotiated peace treaties with invaders such as the Lombards.
Charles Martel
extended the Franks' reign to the north, south, and east. He also defeated Muslim raiders from Spain at the Battle of Tours in 732. This battle was highly significant for Christian Europeans. If the Muslims had won, western Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire. Charles Martel's victory at Tours made him a Christian hero
Charlemagne built an empire greater than any known since ancient Rome. Each summer he led his armies against enemies that surrounded his kingdom. He fought Muslims in Spain and tribes from other Germanic kingdoms. He conquered new lands to both the south and the east. Through these conquests, Charlemagne spread Christianity. He reunited western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire. By 800, Charlemagne's empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire. He had become the most powerful king in western Europe.In gratitude, Pope Leo III crowned him emperor. The coronation was historic. A pope had claimed the political right to confer the title "Roman Emperor" on a European king. This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Church, and the heritage of the Roman Empire. he used royal agents to limit the power of the nobles and encourage learning by ordering monasteries to open up schools. when he died his sons split the empire by the Treaty of Verdun
Magyars and
2. Muslims
a group of nomadic people, attacked from the east, from what is now Hungary. they took captives to sell as slaves.
2.The Muslims struck from the south. They began their encroachments from their strongholds in North Africa, invading through what are now Italy and Spain
Epic Poetry
The Song of Roland is one of the earliest and most famous medieval epic poems. It praises a band of French soldiers who perished in battle during Charlemagne's reign. The poem transforms the event into a struggle.
Otto I
The most effective ruler of medieval Germany was Otto I, known as Otto the Great. Otto, crowned king in 936.Otto formed a close alliance with the Church. To limit the nobles' strength, he sought help from the clergy. He built up his power base by gaining the support of the bishops and abbots, the heads of monasteries. He dominated the Church in Germany. He also used his power to defeat German princes.Otto also invaded Italy on the pope's behalf. In 962, the pope rewarded Otto by crowning him emperor. he also limit the power od the nobles
Concordat of Worms
the Church alone could appoint a bishop, but the emperor could veto the appointment.
Frederick I
Frederick I was the first ruler to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire.His forceful personality and military skills enabled him to dominate the German princes.Frederick repeatedly invaded the rich cities of Italy. His brutal tactics spurred Italian merchants to unite against him. He also angered the pope, who joined the merchants in an alliance called the Lombard League.
In 1176, the foot soldiers of the Lombard League faced Frederick's army of mounted knights at the Battle of Legnano
Holy Roman Empire
an empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D. originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy
leader of the Franks, convert to Christianity in 496, leads the Franks in victory after converting to Christanity, and united the Franks by kingdoms in 511
Pepin the short
son of Chales Martel named king of the Franks by the pope and started the Carolingian dynasty