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36 Cards in this Set

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heredity
biological inheritance
genetics
branch of biology that studies heredity
self-pollination
process in which pollen falls from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or between flowers of the same plant
cross-pollination
transfer of pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of another plant
purebred
if allowed to (usually self)reproduce, then the offspring would be identical to the parents
traits
characteristics
hybrid
organisms produced by crossing parents with differing characters
genes
factors that control traits
alleles
different forms of a gene
dominant
the effects of these alleles are seen even if a contrasting recessive allele is present
recessive
the effects of these alleles are not seen if a dominant allele is present
segregration
separation of alleles
Punnett square
a diagram to determine possible gene combinations, using a series of letters (capital and lowercase) to represent various traits
phenotype
physical characteristics
genotype
genetic makeup
homozygous
organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait
(purebred, essentially)
heterozygous
organisms that have two different alleles for the same trait
(hybrid, essentially)
independent assortment
if genes are not connected, then they should segregrate independently
probability
the likelihood that a particular event will occur, but previous events do not affect future outcomes
test cross
the cross of an organism of unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual
homologous
corresponding chromosomes from each parent
diploid
a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes (one set from each parent)
meiosis
a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half and the homologous chromosomes that exist in a diploid cell are separated
crossing-over
the exchange of portions of chromatids
Did Mendel predict correctly about the structures that carry genes (chromosomes!) during meiosis?
Yes, chromosomes pair and separate during meiosis exactly as Mendel would have predicted for the structures that carry genes
sperm and eggs
only one (out of four) of the cells produced by meiosis is used for reproduction in female cells. the other three become polar bodies, generally not used in reproduction. all four cells in male cells produced by meiosis become sperm, which is used for reproduction.
chromosomes
structures that behave in complex and interesting ways during cell divisions
Where are genes located?
genes are located on chromosomes
Sutton's chromosome theory of heredity
gnes are located on the chromosomes and each gene occupies a specific place on a chromosome
linked genes
genes that are inherited together and do not undergo independent assortment
linkage group
genes that are inherited in a group (chromosomes!)

there is one linkage group for every homologous pair of chromosomes
recombinants
individuals with new combinations of genes
sex chromosomes
chromosome that is different in males and females
autosomes
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
X chromosome
sex chromosome; in humans, fruit flies and certain other organisms, females have two X chromosomes and males only have one
Y chromosome
male sex chromosome in humans, fruit flies, and certain other organisms