Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity
referreing to the deadliness of a disease-causing agent
the transfer of genetic materisl from one organism to another; first observed by griffith
virus that infects bacteria
double helix
spiral-staircase structure charcteristic of the DNA molecule
subunit of nucleic acids consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
five-carbon sugar that is a component of DNA
base-pairing rules
the rule stating that DNA adenine on one strand of always pairs with a thymine on the oppisite strand and guinine on one strand always pairs with a cytosine on the oppisite strand
charchteristic of nucleic acids in which the sequence of bases on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other
DNA replication
the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA helicase
enzyme that breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases during DNA replication
replication fork
a Y-shaped point that results when a double helix of DNA separates so that it can be copied
DNA polymerase
enzyme that catalyzes the replication of DNA by adding complementary nucleotides
ribonucleic acid
a type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis
nirogen-containing base of RNA, complementary to adenine when RNA base paris with DNA
stage of protein synthesis in which the information in DNA for making a protein is transferred to an RNA molecule
stage of gene expression in ehich the information in mRNA is used to make protein
gene exprssion
two-stage processing of information encoded in DNA to produce preoteins
RNA polymearse
enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription
messanger RNA
RNA copy of a gene used as a blueprint for the making of a protein during translation
a three-nucleotide sequence in DNA or mRNA that incodes an amino acid or signifies a stop signal
genetic code
sequence of nucleotides that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein
transfer RNA
RNA molecule that temporarily carries a specific amino acid to a ribosome during translation
a three-nucleotide sequence of tRNA that recognizes a complementary codon on mRNA
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA molecule that plays a structural role in ribosomes
region of DNA that controls RNA polymearse's access to a set of genes with related functions
segment of DNA that controls gene regulation in a set of genes with related functions in prokaryotes
lac operon
gene system with a promoter, an operator gene, and three structural genes that control lactose metabolism
protein that binds to the operator in an operon to switch off transcription
segment of mRNA transcribed from eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
segement of mRNA transcribed from eukaryotic DNA but removed before translation of mRNA into a protein
sequence of nucleotides on a gene that gets transcribed and translated
point mutation
mutation in which one or just a few nucleotides in a gene are changed