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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The 14 elements from thorium through lawrencium
Alkali metals
The elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium in Group 1A
Alkaline earth metals
the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium and radium in group 2A
Atomic radii
half of the diameter of an atom; the distance from the atomic nucleus to the outermost atom
aufbau principle
electrons in an atom are added so that orbitals of lowest energy are filled first
core electrons
the electrons in an atom's completed set of shells that are internal to the outer valence electrons
d-block elements
transition elements whose occurrence in the periodic table coincides with the filling of the d orbitals
effective nuclear charge (Z*)
the net charge experienced by a particular electron in a multi electron atom, which results from a balance of attractive force of the nucleus and the repulsive forces of other electrons
electron affinity (EA)
the energy that is released when a neutral atom in the gas phase gains an extra electron to form a negatively charged anion
ground state
the state of an atom in which all electrons are in the lowest possible energy level
the vertical columns of elements in the period table
the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine in group 7A
Hund's Rule
the most stable arrangement of electrons is that with the maximum number of unpaired electrons, all with the same spin direction
ionization energy (IE)
The energy required to remove one or more electrons from a neutral atom in the gas phase to form a positively charged cation
a set of atoms and ions that have different numbers of protons, but they all have the same number of electrons, and thus the same electron configuration
the 14 elements from cerium through lutecium (Ce-Lu)
Main group elements
the elements in groups 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, and 8A in the periodic table
monatomic ion
an ion consisting of one atom bearing an electrical charge
noble gas notation
an abbreviated form of spdf notation that replaces the completed electron shells with the symbol of the corresponding noble gas in brackets
noble gases
the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon in Group 8A
Orbital box diagram
a notation for the electron configuration of an atom in which each orbital is shown as a box, and the number and spin direction of the electrons are shown by arrows
p-block elements
elements with an outer electron shell configuration of ns^2 np^x
pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
the horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table of the elements
quantum numbers
a set of numbers with integer values that define the properties of an atomic orbital
s-block elements
elements with the valence electron configuration of ns^1 or ns^2
spdf notation
a notation for the electron configuration of an atom in which the number of electrons assigned to a subshell is shown as a superscript after the subshell's symbol
transition elements
the elements scandium through zinc, and those that lie directly below them in the periodic table
valance electrons
the outermost and most reactive electrons in the highest energy level of an atom