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11 Cards in this Set

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Anticholinergics/Parasympatholytics
Atropine & Glycopyrrolate

Block receptors for acetylcholine - reverse parasympathetic nervous system.

block stimulation of vagus nerve
reduce salivation, GI activity & tear secretions
cause pupil dilation (mydriais)
promote bronchodilation
increase heart rate
produce thick mucous secretions within airways
Phenothiazines
Acepromazine, chlorpromazine, triflupromazine

sedation
antiemetic
antiarrhythmic
antihistamine
peripheral vasodilation
personality changes
penile prolapse (horses)
lack of analgesia
Benzodiazepines
diazepam - Valium
zolazepam - component of Telazol
midazolam - Versed
lorazepam - Ativan

Release endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

antianxiety & calming
skeletal muscle relaxation
anticonvulsant
minimal adverse effects
appetite stimulant in cats
modifies behavior in cats (inappropriate urination)
Midazolam vs Diazepam
water soluble & can be mixed with other drugs
less irritating
more absorbant
Alpha-2 Agonists
xylazine - Rompun, Anased
medetomidine - Domitor
detomidine - Dormosedan
romifidine - Sedivet

Effects
analgesia
sedation
muscle relaxation

Adverse Effects
cardiac & respiratory problems
vomiting
depression of GI activity
behavior & personality changes
reduced secretion of insulin
increase of intrauterine pressure in cattle - can cause abortion in last trimester
Alpha-2 Agonists Reversibility
Yohimbine (Yobine) -- xylazine

Tolazoline -- xylazine in cattle & detomidine in horses

Atipamezole -- medetomidine
Opiods / Narcotics
stimulate or block opiod receptors

morphine
meperidine
fentanyl
oxymorphone
buprenorphine
naloxone
butorphanol

Effects
CNS depression or excitement
analgesia

respiratory depression
gastrointestinal upset
physical dependence
bradycardia
histamine release - facial swelling & hypotension
miosis (dogs), mydriasis (cats)
increased responsiveness to noise
excessive salivation
increased intraocular & intracranial pressure
Opiods Reversibility
naloxone hydrochloride

bind to opiod receptors and act as blocking agents
Opiods - examples
morphine
meperidine
fentanyl
oxymorphone
buprenorphine
naloxone
butorphanol
Opiods - effects
CNS depression or excitement
analgesia
Opiods - adverse effects
respiratory depression
gastrointestinal upset
physical dependence
bradycardia
histamine release - facial swelling & hypotension
miosis (dogs), mydriasis (cats)
increased responsiveness to noise
excessive salivation
increased intraocular & intracranial pressure