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96 Cards in this Set

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PIG PRODUCING COUNTRIES

TOP 6
China

EU

USA

Brazil

Canada

Russia

Japan
PIG EATERS

TOP 6
China

EU

USA

Japan

Russia

Brazil

Mexico
CANADIAN PORK PRODUCTION

BY PROVINCE
Quebec

Ontario

Manitoba

Saskatchewan

Alberta

B.C.
ADVANTAGE WESTERN CANADA

5
Abundant and low feed costs
~~ 50 - 60% of production costs

Large Land base
~~ location and manure disposal

Low Pig Density
~~ disease transmission
~~ odours

Good Climate
~~ ie temperate - pigs like it cool

Good people
~~ excellent work ethics
HOG DENSITIES ANINMALS / SQ MILE ARABLE LAND

3 US

5 CANADIAN
North Carolina
~~ 1200
Iowa
~~ 380
Minnesota
~~ 160

Quebec
~~ 554
Ontario
~~ 235
Manitoba
~~ 100
Alberta
~~ 42
Saskatchewan
~~ 14
DISADVANTAGE WESTERN CANADA

5
Environmental Concerns
~~ odour
~~ manure disposal

Lack of Expansion Capital

Shortage of Labour

Higher Costs
~~ construction
~~ labour

Distance from retail markets
MAJOR ISSUES IN SWINE INDUSTRY

6
Welfare
~~ stalls
~~ vices

Environmental
~~ odour
~~ manure
~~ disposal

Public Health
~~ zoonosis
~~ influenza
~~ Step suis

Water Availability

Appreciation of Canadian Dollar

FAD
~~
SOW
A female that has farrowed at least once
DRY SOW
A sow that is NOT lactating
BOAR
An intact male pig
~~ generally post pubertal
GILT
A femal pig that has NOT yet farrowed
BARROW
A castrated male pig
PIGLET
A young pig
~~ generally pre weaning
WEANER PIG
A pig recently weaned
FEEDER PIG
A pig old enough to enter the grower barn
~~ 25 kg
~~ 8 weeks
MARKET PIG
A pig large enough to be processed
~~ 115 kg
FARROW
To give birth
~~ gestation interval is 115 -117 days
WEAN
remove litter from dam
~~ 14 - 28 days
BREEDING HERD
Areas and Animals that are
~~ breeding
~~ gestating
~~ farrowing
FEEDING HERD
Areas and Animals that are
~~ nursing in the farrowing barn
~~ growing in the nurseries
~~ more growing in the grower barns
~~ finishing (aka more growing) in the finishing barns
FARROWING BARN
Where sows
~~ farrow
~~ nurse litters
~~--~~ 2 - 4 weeks
NURSERY
aka WEANER barn

Where pigs are raised after weaning
~~ 5 - 8 weeks
GROW - FINISH BARN
Where pigs are raised
~~ after leaving the nursery
~~ and before processing
~~ 8 weeks as growers
~~ 8 weeks as finishers
PIG BREEDS

4 DEFINITIONS
Purebreds
~~ regisered
~~ unregistered
~~--~~ the majority

Crossbred
~~ 2 way
~~ 3 way
~~ back cross

F1
~~ cross between two purebreds

Synthetics
~~ company proprietary lines
~~ start with 4 breeds
~~ mix and cross breed
~~ rebreed cross breeds over many generations until "pure"
MATERNAL BREED

SELECTION CRITERIA

2
Fecundity

Mothering Ability
PATERNAL BREED

SELECTION CRITERIA

2
aka TERMINAL

Growth
~~ feed efficiency

Carcass and Meat Quality
~~ high protein
~~ low fat
MATERNAL BREEDS

5
Chines Meishan
~~ 20 live piglets
~~ high fat

Meishan Synthetic
~~ less fat but still too high
~~ retains high fecundity
~~ 12.5% Meishan

Landrace
~~ white
~~ floppy ears
~~ cadallac female line

Large White York

F1
~~ Landrace x Large White York
~~ in majority of NA pig barns
~~ 14 live piglets
PATERNAL BREEDS

4
Pietrain
~~ very heavy set ham
~~ Europeans like big hams
~~ but NA values lion tf not common
~~ porcine stress syndrom

Hampshire
~~ Canadian strains have problem with RN gene
~~--~~ acidic meat
~~--~~ similar to porcine stress syndrome

Duroc
~~ most common terminal sire
~~ well muscled
~~ well marbled
~~ red meat
~~--~~ tf Japanese Market

White Synthetic
~~ ie PIC 337
~~ Duroc and Pietrain combo
WHERE ARE THE GENETIC NUCLEI OF MAJOR CANADIAN GENETIC COMPANIES

NAME A FEW
Saskatchewan or Manitoba

PIC
Topigs
Mansanto Choice Genetics
Hypor
Genetiporc
Fast Pigs INc
Designed Genetics Inc
Danbred North America
GENETIC PYRAMID

GENETIC NUCLEUS
Purebred Farms
~~ genetic testing and selection
~~ high cost

Great Great Grandparents GGGPs
~~ Maternal
~~--~~ GGGP genetics take 2 years to reach market
~~ Paternal
~~--~~ GGGP genetics take 6 months to reach market
~~ LR x LR ; LW x LW ; DU x DU

Terminal Sires
~~ breed in commercial barns

Boars
~~ 30 matings then
~~--~~ slaughter
~~--~~ down tier

Sows
~~ each produces 6 sows in daughter nucleus
GENETIC PYRAMID

DAUGHTER NUCLEUS
Purebred Multiplication
~~ minimal genetic testing

Great Grandparents GGPs
~~ Maternal
~~ LR x LR ; LW x LW

Boars to slaughter

Sows
~~ each produces 6 sows in Multiplication
GENETIC PYRAMID

MULTIPLICATION
Crossbred Multiplication
~~ no genetic testing

Grandparents GPs
~~ Maternal
~~ LR x LW
~~ Produce F1s

Boars to slaughter
GENETIC PYRAMID

COMMERCIAL
Commercial Productiom

Parents
~~ Maternal
~~ LR x LW
~~ Terminal Sire
~~ Produce Market Population
~~--~~ 25% LR, 25% LW, 50% Terminal Sire

All progeny to slaughter
PRODUCTION PHASES

4

NAME EM
Breeding - Gestation
~~ BG

Farrowing
~~ F or FAR

Nursery
~~ N or Nur

Grower and Finisher
~~ GF or Gr or Fin
BREEDING GESTATION

5 BULLETS
Gilts
~~ entry
~~ pubertal stimulation
~~ breeding

Sows
~~ weaning
~~ breeding

Breeding
~~ natural
~~ AI

Semen
~~ in house collection
~~ in house processing

Implantation
~~ 11 - 21 days 14 days avg
~~ followed by gestation TO farrowing
FARROWING

5 BULLETS
Farrowing

Piglet Processing
- Fe injection
- teeth clipping
- castration
- tail clipping

Lactation

Creep feeding of piglets

Weaning
~~ 14 - 28 days
~~ sow back to Breeding - Gestation
NURSERY

4 BULLETS
Removed From Sow
~~ ie 5 kgs @ 17 days

Regrouped and Sorted
~~ size
~~ sex
~~ breed

Transition from milk to dry feed
~~ enzyme changes

Growth
~~ 5 kg to 30 kg
~~ 6 - 8 weeks
GROWER AND FINISHER

5 BULLETS
Regrouped and Sorted
~~ size
~~ sex
~~ breed

Small Pens
~~ 12 - 25 hogs

Large Pens
~~ 50 to 700 hogs
~~ don't fight bc can't count over 30 tf no recognition
~~ easier to find optimum micro environment

Efficient Growth
~~ 25 - 115 kg
~~ 16 weeks

Weigh and Market
PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

SIX ALL TOGETHER SO YOU CAN

COMPARE AND CONTRAST
Farrow to Finish
~~ 1200 sows max
~~ Genetics
~~--~~ Gilts
~~--~~ Boars
~~--~~ Semen
~~ Breeder
~~ Farrow
~~ Grower Finisher
~~ All on one site
~~--~~ can be under one roof

Classic
~~ 2 Sites
~~ Single Source
~~ Site One - Breeder Gestation, Farrowing and Nursery
~~ Site - Grower Finisher
~~--~~ Works for Grain Producer
~~ pigs transfered at 25 kg
~~--~~ tf high transport cost
~~--~~ tf high transport stress

2 Site Wean - Finish Isowean System
~~ single or multiple sourced
~~ Site One - Breeder Gestation and Farrowing
~~ Site Two - Nursery and Grower Finishing
~~ transport at 5 kg
~~--~~ tf low transportation cost
~~--~~ tf low transportation stress
~~ superior growth weight vs Classic

3 Site Segregated Weaning
~~ Single Source
~~ Site One - Breeder Gestation and Farrow
~~ Site Two - Nursery
~~ Site Three - Grower Finisher
~~ Isolates weaners at time when colostral immunity lowest
~~ two transport points tf stress and growth interruption
~~ three buildings/sites to maintain
~~ tf not economic

Multi-Source Isowean
~~ multiple sites and sizes of Breeder Gestation and Farrowing units
~~ multiple nursery sites filled weekly in sequence from all BGFs
~~ multiple grower finisher sites filled in weekly to biweekly sequence from Nurseries
~~ each batch stays together from nursery on

Parity Segregated Productin System
~~ Gilt herd is isolated and produces into Seperate Isolated Nursery and Grower Finisher Barns
~~ Parity 1 weaned sows then join Parity 2+ sow herds producing into P2+ Nurseries and Grower Finisher Barns
~~ younger sows produce less immunity in progeny
~~--~~ tf isolate progeny of gilts
PIG FLOW SYSTEMS

TWO
Continuous Flow
~~ large air space
~~ comingled ages
~~ multiple weeks of production in one room
~~ pigs enter and exit airspace on weekly basis
~~ tf oldest pigs contaminate youngest

All In All Out
~~ small air spaces containing one weeks production
~~ compartmentalized
~~--~~ by room or by building
HUMANE PROCESSING

12 STEPS TO THE VANISHING POINT
6 - 8 processing plants in Western Canada
~~ tightly regulated by CFIA

Delivery to plant by producer
~~ traceable tattoo in left shoulder provides traceability

Assembled in yard to 12 -18 hours
~~ dissapate lactic acid from Porcine Stress Syndrome

Stunned by Electrocution
~~ low current - high voltage
~~ just enough to stun for 2 minutes
~~ too much bursts blood vessels

Shackled and Hung
~~ rear fetlocks

Bled via cervical vena cava
~~ thoracic inlet via knife

Scalded, dehaired and washed

Eviscerated

Chilled 24 Hours

Primal Cuts
~~ Ham
~~ Loin
~~ Shoulder
~ ~ butt (proximal)
~ ~ picnic (distal)
~~ Belly
~ ~ ribs and bacon

Trimmed or Retail Cuts

Further processing
~~ wieners, sausage, pepperoni and breakfast sausage (50% fat from jowls)etc
~~ Curing / Smoking - bacon and ham

Rendered Product
~~ offal, trim, bones etc
CONDEMNATION

CFIA'S 9 FAVOURITES

ARE THE TOP 3 INCREASING
Abscess

Arthritis

Peritonitis

Pneumonia

Scepticemia

Icterus

Bruising

Overscald

Contamination

YES
MANURE STORAGE
Short Term
~~ in barn storage
~~ shallow 2' pits
~~ slatted floor
~~ pit plug lifted weekly to drain

Long Term
~~ Deep Pits 8'
~~ ~~ limited long term storage
~~ Concrete Tanks
~~ Earthen Manure Storage (EMS)
~ ~ clay or plastic liners
~ ~ allows spreading once per year
~ ~ lagoons covered with plastic or straw
~ ~ manure injected into soil

Noxious Gases
~~ H2S
~ ~ problem with deep pits
~~ Ammonia
MANURE

A RENEWABLE RESOURCE
Good but variable source of plant nutrients
~~ Nitrogen 0.3 - 5.8 kg/1000 L
~~ Phosphorus 0.04 - 2.9 kg/1000 L

Nutrient composition varies with
~~ climate
~~ production practices
~~ diets
~~ storage techniques

Liquid and Solid systems

Biodgesters
~~ early adoption phase
~~ reduce green house gas emissions
~~ energy production
RENDERING

PROTEIN RECYCLING

WHAT CAN AND CAN NOT YOU DO
Meat and Bone Meal (MBM) available as ingredient for
~~ swine
~~ poultry
~~ other non ruminants

Source of protein, fat (lard), calcium, phosphorus

Feeding MBM derived from ruminants back to ruminants is banned

Ruminant MBM can be fed to swine if Specified Risk Materials (SRM) are removed
RENDERED PRODUCT

RISK

NAME THE 7 DEADLY SRMS
Specified Risk Materials (SRMs)
~~ tissues in BSE infected cattle constain the BSE prion and must be removed

Removal of SR<'s for all animal feeds (livestock and pets) as of Jul 06

SRMs
~~ skull
~~ brain
~~ spinal cord
~~ trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia
~~ eyes
~~ tonsils of 30+ month cattle
~~ distal ileum of all ages of cattle

MBM and Tallow (beef fat) traditionly avaoided in high health swine units due to biosecurity

Views may be changing due to cost and evironmental stewardship
FEED PROCESSING
Feed represents 50 - 60% of production costs
~~ $60 $70 per pig

Total Mixed Ration

Grains ground to 500 - 700 microns

Western Canadian Feed Ingredients
~~ Protein via soybean, canola and fish meals and field peas
~~ Carbs via wheat, barle corn
~~ fats via tallow, canola oil
~~ Vitamins
~~ Minerals
~~ Salt
SEMEN PROCESSING

7 FACTS FOR SUCCESS
Purchased or Collected on Farm

Fresh
~~ frozen reduces farrowing rates

Usually Pooled
~~ several boars per dose

Dose
~~ 3 Billion sperm per dose
~~ 2 - 3 doses per sow
~~ 10 - 35 doses per ejaculate approx 250 mls
~~ 10 -15 min per ejaculate

Storage
~~ 12 Deg C
~~ protect from light

Transported in Styrofoam Coolers

Extenders
~~ 10 day most common
~~ 3 day and 5 - 7 day
WHAT 8 SOURCES OF INFORMATION WOULD YOU CONSULT SHOULD YOU WANT TO HAVE THE HIGHEST T4 OF CLASS OF 09 IN 2010
Canadian Pork Council

canadian Pork International

canadian Meat Council

Farm Animal Care Saskatchewan

Provincial Pork Loppy and Marketing Organizations
~~ Sask Pork
~~ Alberta Pork
~~ Manitoba Pork

National Prok Producers Council

Prarie Swine Centre

CFIA
STALLED HOUSING SYSTEMS
Most Common

Reduce aggression

Improve feeding consistency

Strongly entrenched in NA industry

Banned in some EU countries

Best stystem to prevent aggression
GROUP HOUSING SYSTEMS
Many Types
~~ access to outside pastures, sheds, bedding
~~ Group size from 6 - 60
~~ many feeding methods
~~ varied group dynamics

Ad lib feeding via self feeders not possible
~~ sows will consume more feed than required
~~ fat sows have farrowing problems
GESTATION HOUSING SYSTEMS
Discrete Areas in BG Barn

Weaned Sow housing

Breeding area
~~ sows
~~ boars

Implantation and Gestation
~~ 21 - 115 days

Gilt Development and Breeding

Quarantine / Acclimation area
~~ biosecurity
~~ controlled exposure to barn pathogens
5 IMPORTANT WELFARE CRITERIA

SOW HOUSING

KNOW EM COLD
Freedom of Movement
~~ stalls vs groups

Freedom from Aggression
~~ stalls vs groups

Control over Individual Feed Intake
~~ seems like a freedom for the producer to me

Environmental Enrichment

Static Space
~~ minimums
WHAT DID GONYOU SAY IN O4
Neither stall nor group systems satisfy all requirements all of the time, but some systems offer welfare superiour environments and compete in terms of productivity
FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT
Group Housing
~~ Give animal sense of control to select an appropriate micro environment
~~ Provides opportunity for exercise
~~ increased muscle size and tone
~~ shorter 4.6 vs 7.2(stall)hr farrowing
~~ lower cull rate 1% vs 4(stall)%

Stall Housing
- stalls seem to be silent on this topic
FREEDOM FROM AGRESSION
Group Housing
~~ occurs during regrouping and feeding
~~ similar to aggression seen throughout production cycle during regrouping
~~ -- ~~ nursery, grower, assembly yards

Reproductive impact greater if mixed pre implant vs post implant

Stall Housing
~~ aggression virtually eliminated
~~ major reason for adoption of stall housing
CONTROL OVER INDIVIDUAL FEED INTAKE
Commercial production requires control over absolute amount and composition of feed

Nutrient intake is based on the individual needs of the sow
~~ size
~~ condition
~~ parity

Group Housing
~~ Floor dropped - aggression reduced if multiple feedings
~~ Electronic Sow Feeder Systems (ESF)
~~ -- ~~ individual feeding of sows
~~ -- ~~ aggression from dominant sows at begining of feeding cycle

Stall Housing
~~ provide safe and seperate feeding space
~~ bulk feeding systems lack individual control
~~ drop systems control volume but are not accurate
~~ generally one feed composition per barn
~~ individual diets not feasible
ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT
Group Housing
~~ Straw and Bedding Provide
~~ -- ~~ Thremoregulation
~~ -- ~~ Reduced Hunger
~~ -- ~~ Protection from floor
~~ -- ~~ Increases activity level
~~ EU requires pigs have access to manipulable material
~~ -- ~~ creates biosecurity, manure and labour problems
~~ -- ~~ tf no pig industry in Britan and no enrichment in NA

Stall Housing
~~ some barns have a little piece of chain at the front of the stall
STATIC SPACE REQUIREMENTS
Space Requirements voluntary in NA

Group Housing
~~ Floor plan and space/sow critical for success of system
~~ distinct areas required for
~~ - ~~ feeding
~~ - ~~ sleeping
~~ - ~~ dunging

Stall Housing
~~ 60% of time spent in lateral recumbrancy during last 2 weeks of pregnancy
~~ most tradional stalls too small 20 - 24"
~~ minimum requirements
~~ - ~~ 24" small sows
~~ - ~~ 26" medium sows
~~ - ~~ 28" large sows
~~ if stalls to wide sows can turn around or get stuck
TRADITIONAL FLOOR FEEDING
Feed usually dropped 1 -2 times per day can be as high as 6 - 8 drops
~~ increasing drops reduces aggression

Fighting is higher in smaller group sizes
~~ < 10 worst
~~ > 30 best

Dominant sows monopolize feed
~~ tf group similar sized sows
~~ tf provide larger feeding space
~~ use generally static groups
TRICKLE FEEDING
Sows fed individually in partial stalls that protect head and shoulders

Feed metered at set rate coinciding with eating speed of sow
~~ feed is consumed as dispensed
~~ tf sows stay in stalls

Sows must be sorted by eating rate and requirements
~~ tf increased labour
~~ tf not practicle in large barns
FEED STALLS
Full sized feeding stalls
~~ feeding pen
~~ or in group pen

Set amount of feed
~~ top up for individuals

Sows sorted by
~~ size
~~ gestation point
~~ aggressiveness
~~ tf increased labour cost

Works best with static groups
ELECTRONIC SOW FEEDERS
Greatest control over individual feed intake

Computer controls amount and type of diet

Daily allowances are automatically adjusted for the stage and condition of sow

Techically complex

Sow ID ear tags or collars can be problematic

Entire group completess feeding in 14 - 18 hrs
~~ some aggression at start of feed cycle

Best suited for large farms
DESIRED FREEDOM +/- CHART

STALLS
- FoM

+ FoA Feed
+ FoA Regroup

+/- CoFI Amount
- CoFI Composition

- EE

- SS
DESIRED FREEDOM +/- CHART

ELECTRONIC FEED SYSTEM
+ FoM

+ FoA Feed
- FoA Regroup

+ CoFI Amount
+ CoFI Composition

+/- EE

+ SS
DESIRED FREEDOM +/- CHART

FLOOR FEED
+ FoM

- FoA Feed
- FoA Regroup

- CoFI Amount
- CoFI Composition

+/- EE

+ SS
DESIRED FREEDOM +/- CHART

TRICKLE FEED
+ FoM

+ FoA Feed
- FoA Regroup

+/- CoFI Amount
- CoFI Composition

+/- EE

+ SS
DESIRED FREEDOM +/- CHART

FEED STALLS
+ FoM

+ FoA Feed
- FoA Regroup

+ CoFI Amount
+/- CoFI Composition

+/- EE

+ SS
BREEDING MANAGEMENT

GILTS
First Fertile Breeding
~~ min age 210 - 240 days
~~ or 2nd or 3rd observed estrus
~~ or min weight 135 kg regardless of age or weight

Litter size increases by 0.5 pgs for each subsequent estrus
~~ 2nd estrus best balance between cost and litter size
BREEDING MANAGEMENT

WEANED SOWS
Housed in pens or stalls after weaning

Estrus checks performed with boars 1 - 2 /day
~~ pheromones in saliva stimulate estrus

Most cycle 4 - 7 days after weaning
~~ old 1 day
~~ parity 2 5 days
Standing Heat
~~ mate AI or natural service every 12 - 24 hrs until out of standing heat
~~ usually 2 - 3 matings
HEAT CYCLE
- 48 hrs
~~ vulva reddens, swells and subsides over 4 days

-24 hrs
~~ honking
~~ mounting behaviour

0 hrs
~~ Start of Standing (heat) period
~~ lasts 24 - 90 hrs
~~ ovulation 2/3 into cycle

24 hr
~~ stands to back pressure
~~ first insemination

36 hr
~~ 2nd insemination
BOAR POWER

3 WAYS
Natural Service Barns

~~ maintain 1 Boar / 20 Females
~~ replacement rate 50% / yr due to genetic advancement

AI Service Barns
~~ 90% of industry
~~ maintain population of STERILE (vasecto or epididiomy)Boars
~~ - ~~ 1 / 200 sows
~~ - ~~ test induce sows
~~ replacment rate 30 - 50% year
~~ - ~~ cull for size and pheromone production

AI Studs
~~ replacement rate 75% - 100% / yr
~~ cull mainly on genetic advancement
~~ also cull performance, health
POST BREEDING MANAGEMENT
Sows may be regrouped into group pens

Feeding level is reduced
~~ 1.8 to 2.2 kg/day until day 21
~~ high feed levels increase embryonic death

Minimal stress during implantation period
~~ 12 - 21 days
~~ minimize embryonic death
~~ tf no movement or regrouping
~~ tf no overcrowding
~~ tf provide proper environment
PREGNANCY EXAMINATION
Perform heat checks ad day 21 and 42
~~ must use boar

Ultrasonic Pregnancy Examination
~~ day 18 - 35 depending on equipment

Real Time Ultra Sound
~~ day 18 - 25

Doppler
~~ day 30 - 32

A-Mode
~~ day 30 - 35
LIFE CYCLE OF GILT
Gilt (P0)

5 Month
~~ enter system
~~ vaccinate
~~ - ~~ parvo
~~ - ~~ lepto
~~ - ~~ erysipelas

7 - 8 Months
~~ Puberty
~~ sterile mating to induce cycling via pheromones
~~ vaccinate
~~ - ~~ parvo
~~ - ~~ lepto
~~ - ~~ erysipelas

7 - 8 Months
~~ 2 - 3 Fertile Matings
~~ implantation

Gestation
~~ 115 days
~~ vaccinate twice for
~~ - ~~ e coli
~~ - ~~ rota virus

Farrow (P1)

Lactation
~~ 14 - 28 Days
~~ vaccinate booster
~~ - ~~ parvo
~~ - ~~ lepto
~~ - ~~ erysipelas

WSI Weaned to Service Interval
~~ 5 - 8 days

Rebreed
LIFE CYCLE OF SOW
Gilt (P1+)

Rebreed
~~ 2 - 3 Fertile Matings
~~ implantation

Gestation
~~ 115 days
~~ vaccinate booster
~~ - ~~ e coli
~~ - ~~ rota virus

Farrow (P2)

Lactation
~~ 14 - 28 Days
~~ vaccinate booster
~~ - ~~ parvo
~~ - ~~ lepto
~~ - ~~ erysipelas

WSI Weaned to Service Interval
~~ 5 - 8 days

Rebreed

Cull after P4 - P7
SIGNIFICANT EVENTS PREGNANCY

POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES PRENATAL DEATH
Day 0
~~ mating

Day 0 - 35
~~ readsorption

Day 14
~~ placentation begins

Day 14 - Day 115
~~ abortion (dead piglets)

Day 18 - 24
~~ regular return

Day 25 - 37
~~ irregular return

Day 35
~~ skeletal mineralization

Day 37 - 115
~~ fetal mummification

Day 38 - 42
~~ Regular Return

Day 43 - 115
~~ pseudo pregnancy and late return

Day 70
~~ functional fetal immunity

Day 100 - 115
~~ not in pig NIP

Day 113 - 115
~~ premature farrowing
~~ live piglets

Day 115
~~ farrowing
ENIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

PIG FLOW
Buildings are continuous flow

Facilities generally washed 1 - 2 x per year
~~ Canadian Quality Assurance (QCA) Program of Canadian Pork Council

Pens emptied and refilled in batches
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

BOARS
Individually housed to prevent fighting

Territorial and dominant
~~ will fight to death in confined quarters
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

LIGHTING
Indigenous pigs are seasonal breeders
~~ farrow in spring

domestic pigs are stimulated by SHORTENING PHOTO PERIOD

Seasonal INFERTILITY peaks when summer breeding for fall farrowing

Most fertile period
~~ fall and winter
~~ max decrease photo period

Maintain 16 hr / day light
~~ breeding barns
~~ gestation barns
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

TEMPERATURE
Barn Temp
~~ 15 - 20 deg C

Stalls
~~ 18 - 20 deg C
~~ individual housing
~~ cant escape adverse environment
~~ floor moisture

Group Housed
~~ bedded 15 deg C
~~ concrete 17 deg C

Pregnant sows prone to heat stress
~~ sweat glands nose only

Hosing, Drip nozzels, Misters
~~ require air flow for evaporative cooling and aviod humidity
GILT MANAGEMENT
40% Sows culled per year

Repacements required to ensure breeding targets

Proper age distribution required in herd to manintain immunity
~~ younger produce less colostral AB
~~ tf progeny have poor immunity

Replacements
~~ Raised on Farm
~~ - ~~ in house multiplication
~~ purchased from breeding company
GILT SELECTION

FOUR WAYS TO GET PHYSICAL
Gilts are selected on basis of their
~~ physical condition
~~ genetic merits for superior reproduction

Physical selection 80 - 100 kg / 4 - 5 months
~~ feet and leg conformation
~~ underline
~~ - ~~ min 12 - 14 well spaced nipples
~~ external genitalia
~~ Defects
~~ - ~~ hernias
~~ - ~~ hermaphrodites
GILT PURCHASE AND ACCLIMATION
Match health status of recipient and source farms

vaccinate pre-entry
~~ specific to recipient farm needs
~~ may include antibiotics

Place in semi-isolation
~~ area of barn where disease activity is low
~~ gestation not grower

Use post arrival antimicrobials
~~ typically day 3 - 5
ACCLIMATION
Controlled exposure to the pathogens present in recipient farm to allow sufficient immune development without clinical illness
QUARANTINE
Isolate gilts in a separate building, a convenient distance from nain unit for 30 - 60 days prior to entry to the breeding barn
REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

NUTRITIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Improper (under / over)feeding in one phase will have significant affects in other phases

Overfeeding in gestation adversely impacts lactation performance
~~ tf weaning weight

Underfeeding during lactation adversely impacts
~~ litter size
~~ Wean to Service Interval (WSI)
NORMAL FOLLICULAR GROWTH

LACTATION
Prolactin is inhibitory to FSH in early lactation

FSH and Estrogen rise in late lactation

Frequency of LH pulses increase in late lactation

Waves of follicular growth occur prior to weaning

Some breeds cycle during lactation
~~ problematic
HORMONAL AND NUTRITIONAL

INTERACTIONS
Interaction amoung feed intake, body composition, neurotransmitters, hypotalamus and ovaries is COMPLEX
~~ Intake - feed, energy protein
~~ Neurotransmitters and Hormones in plasma
~~ Body weight - Fat and Protein composition
~~ Hypothalamus
~~ Ovaries

Underfeeding
~~ Effect on follicular development and oocyte maturation
~~ - ~~ male / female ratio
~~ Endorcrine effects in the late follicular phse of the estrous cycle
~~ Changes in early luteal function and progesterone status
~~ Early embryonic development in the oviduct and uterus

Note Fat Sows dont eat
`` tf overfeeding is a problem as well
BODY CONDITIONING

GESTATING SOWS

NUMBERS WHERE AND HOW
~~ 14 mm P2 backfat for Gilts
~~ 18 - 19 mm P2 backfate for all parity sows at farrowing
~~ tf put on 4 mm P2

Scoring
~~ visual and palpation
~~ ultrasound
~~ - ~~ real time
~~ - ~~ A-Mode
P2 SITE
5 cm lateral to midline

Last Rib

Perpendicular to skin

Measures Longisimus Dorsi
~~ aka the pork chop
GESTATION DIET
Lower Energy and Protein

Crude Protein
~~ 13.5%

Energy (DE)
~~ 3.0 - 3.1 Mcal

Crude Fibre
~~ 5%

Crude Fat
~~ 3%

Calcium
~~ 0.85%

Phosphorus
~~ 0.7%

Total Lysine
~~ 0.6%

Note Most Fetal Growth in Last 2 Weeks
LACTATION DIET
Higher Energy and Protein

Crude Protein
~~ 18 - 22%

Energy (DE)
~~ 3.3 - 3.5 Mcal

Crude Fibre
~~ 4%

Crude Fat
~~ 4%

Calcium
~~ 0.9%

Phosphorus
~~ 0.75%

Total Lysine
~~ 1.0%

Note Sows still lose fat via backfat and protein
SOW DIET COMPOSITION

WESTERN CANADA
Protein Sources
~~ Soybean meal
~~ Canola meal
~~ Field Peas

Carb Sources
~~ Wheat
~~ Barley
~~ Corn

Fat Sources
~~ Canola oil
~~ Tallow

Vitamins and Minerals
~~ Limestone (Ca)
~~ Monocalcium Phosphate
~~ Salt
~~ Micro Minerals
~~ Vitamins
PRINCIPLES OF FEEDING SOWS

FOUR
Sow weight and target gain

Sow body condition

Milk yield in lactation
~~ related to litter size

Stage of production
~~ lactation vs gestation
FEEDING STRATEGY FOR SOWS

5 STEPS
Drop after Breeding 72 hrs
~~ increases progesterone
~~ gilts dropped more than sows

Feed to Body Condition

All sows fed 1 1.5 kg more Day 100 - 112
~~ support fetal growth

All sows fed 1 1.5 kg LESS Day 112 - Farrowing
~~ reduce dystocia via emptying GI tract

Feed intake increased during lactation

Use weight and P2 backfat to choose a feeding bracket