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116 Cards in this Set

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BREEDING WEIGHTS SOWS

4 CATAGORIES
Light
`` 115 - 150 kg

Medium
`` 150 - 175 kg

Heavy
`` 175 - 200 kg

Very Heavy
`` 200 - 225 kg
GESTATIONAL FEEDING

EARLY LATE

GILTS SOWS
Sows normally fed 1 - 2 x per day
`` 4 - 6 x per day for automatic systems

Early Gestation
`` Gilts
`` `` Overfeeding (>2.5 kg/day)
`` `` `` reduces progesterone
`` `` `` tf increase embryo mortality
`` Multiparous sows
`` `` feed according to body condition

Late Gestation
`` Gilts and Sows from 100 day to farrowing
`` `` feed levels increased by 1 - 1.5 kg/day
`` `` `` support fetal growth
`` `` `` avoid mobilization of body fat
LACTATION FEEDING STRAGEGIES

5
Sows fed 2 - 4 x per day

Sows generally have a low intake on day of farrowing

Water flow rates
`` >= 2L / min

Feed intake
`` gradually increased
`` esp during 1st week of lactation
LACTATING SOWS...

SUCCESFUL HERD PERFORMANCE...
Is Dependent on Maximizing feed intake as Early as possible
RECCOMMENDE FEEDING LEVELS DURING LACTATION

5 TIME INTERVALS
Kg / day

Day of Farrowing
`` 1.5 to 2.0

Day 1 and 2
`` 3.5

Day 3 - 7
`` Increase feed intake daily
`` meet minimum target by day 7

Day 8 - 13
`` Hold at MINIMIMUM target level

Day 12 - Weaning
`` Increase gradulally to sow appetite
`` may require 3 meals / day
UNDER FEEDING LACTATION SOWS

4 CONSEQUENCES
Poor reproductive performance
`` sows take longer to return to estrus
`` reduced pregnancy rate
`` increased embryo mortality

Early Culling form herd
`` lower % of sows return to estrus

Excessive weight loss

Reduced milk yield
`` reduced weaning weights
NUTRIENT RESTICTION IN ANY WEEK OF LACTATION...
Will significantly reduce
`` sow fertility
`` subsequent litter's
`` `` weight gain
`` `` embryo survival weight
WEIGHT LOSS IN LACTATING SOWS

TARGETS

FACTOIDS
Target
`` to have enough protein to sustain lactation and maintain fertility
`` 175 kg live weight at first farrowing
`` `` exclude conceptus and placenta
`` tf 135 kg at breeding

Sow weight loss in lactation usually consists of both protein and fat

Subsequent Reproductive Performance
`` Maternal protein is more important than lipid loss
`` tf Protein is sow's most valuable resource
SOW LACTATION FEED INTAKE

5 GENERAL FACTORS
Ambient Environment
`` Air velocity
`` Temp
`` Evaporative Cooling
`` Humidity
`` Ventilation Rates

Facilities and Equipment
`` Feeder Design
`` Floor Surface
`` Crate Design

Sow Factors
`` Lactation Length
`` Litter Size
`` Genetics
`` Parity
`` Disease

Gestation Feed Intake
`` overfeeding in gestation reduces lactation intake

Feeding Management
`` Feeding Frequency
`` Amount per feeding
`` Feed Monitoriing
SOW LACTATION FEED INTAKE

6 EXAM WORTHY FACTORS
Body Condition at Farrowing
`` consequence of gestational intake
`` lactation intake declines when backfat levels exceed 18 - 19 mm
`` severe when > 24 - 25 mm
`` depends on genotype and maybe parity

Over feeding in early lactation
`` tranisent reductions in intake
`` `` not significant
`` long term reductions in intake
`` `` > 48 hrs potentially significant

Sow and Litter Illness
`` systemic disease in sow
`` sow constipation
`` udder congestion and aglactia
`` Mastitis
`` MMA - Mastitis, Metritis & Aglactia Syndrome
`` scours in litter

Parity
`` Gilts eat less than sows
`` finicky when first enter crate

Room Temperature
`` heat reduces intake
`` 18 - 19 deg C
`` `` warm enough to pervent piglet chilling
`` `` cool enough to stimulate appetite

Feed Form and Availablility
`` feeding frequency stimulates appetite
`` `` early 2x/d
`` `` late 3x/d
`` Wet feed stimulates appetite
`` water flow 2L/min
`` add water to feed trough
CALCULATING DAY 7 MINIMUM TARGET
1.5 kg for sow maintenance

Plus

0.5 kg per piglet
ROOM FLOW

3 CONSIDERATIONS
Sanitation
`` wash
`` disinfect
`` dry prior to entry
`` `` washing aerosolizes pathogens

Pig Movement
`` preferably AIAO
`` continuous flow out of vogue
`` `` old or small farms
`` `` overflow rooms

Room number increases with weaning age
FARROWING SOWS INDIVIDUALLY HOUSED

3 WHYS
Reduces Preweaning Mortality
`` crushes
`` injuries
`` savaging

Enables indiviual sow feeding
`` remember magic day 7 minimum

Creates Micro Environment for Piglets
`` Room 18 - 19 deg C
`` Piglet Creep
`` `` 35 deg C at farrowing
`` `` gradually reduced
FARROWING CRATE DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS 4
Farrowing Crate
`` 24" width
`` 7.5' - 8' length
`` 5' - 6' pen width

Flooring
`` non slip
`` plastic warm for piglets
`` cast iron or metal
`` `` repels sleepy piglets
`` `` cool for sow

Feed
`` Bucket Feed
`` dry or wet

Water
`` Sow nipples
`` `` 2 L/min
`` `` 75 - 90 cm height
`` `` close to feeder
`` piglet nipples optional
NORMAL GESTATION LENGTH
Normal Range
`` 111 - 119 days

Majority
`` 114 - 116 days

Move into crates
`` 4 - 5 days in advance of normal
PRE FARROWING PROCEDURES

5
Vaccinate
`` prevent piglet scours
`` `` E coli, rotavirus
`` prevent erysipelas (diamond skid disease)
`` `` Gilts 5 & 2 weeks pre farrow
`` `` sows 2 weeks pre farrow

Reduce Feed Intake
`` empty GI
`` lower dystocia

Transfer sows to farrowing room
`` day 110 - 112

Scrape manure behind sows daily
`` want piglets to get colostrum before manure

Raise Room Temp for farrowing
`` 21 - 23 deg C (from 18)
`` 35 is what piglets would like
FETAL CORTISOL AND PARTUITION

WHY

FETAL EFFECTS 4
Natural rise in fetal cortisol is required
`` farrowing iduction
`` maturation of fetal tissue

Effects
`` Liver - glycogen deposition
`` GIT - AB absoption
`` Lung - surfactant production
`` Skeletal muscle - maturation
FARROWING INDUCTION

5 WHYS
Facilitate cross fostering and neonatal care
`` via syncronized farrowing

Improve staff efficiency
`` work during day
`` avoid weekend work

Stillbirth Control

Avoid straggler sows (over 116 days)
`` tf get farrowing rooms cleaned up on schedule

Increase Weaning Age
`` ie all will be weaned at same date
FARROWING INDUCTION

WHAT

HOW 5

HOW MUCH
Products
`` Planate
`` Estrumate
`` Lutalyse

Routes
`` IM Neck (label)
`` `` hard to do bc habituated via vaccinations
`` Vulvomucosal
`` Lateral Vulvar
`` `` high fat region
`` Peri anal
`` `` high fat region
`` Abdominal oblique
`` `` best bc muscle

Doses
`` Planate 1ml = 87.5 microg
`` Estrumate 0.75 - 1 ml =
188 - 250 microgram
`` Lutalyse 2 ml = 10 mg
PARTUITION

4 IMPENDING SIGNS
Serete Milk

Nesting behaviour
`` restlessness

Raised Rectal Temp

Reduced Feed Intake
PARTUITION

PROCESS 3
2 - 3 HRS

Piglets expelled 5 - 20 min
`` 15 average
`` 20 min = impending dystocia

Placent
`` generally expelled after last piglet
STILL BORNS

WHAT

4 RISK FACTORS
Fetuses that are live until term
`` die DURING farrowing

Higher Parity

Overweight

Season
`` heat in summer

Higher Birth Order
`` Farrowing Fatique

Note - Float lungs to differentiate
`` stillbirth
`` postnatal death
FETAL MUMMIFICATION

WHAT

INFECTIOUS 4

NON IFECTIOUS 3
Fetuses that die prior to term
`` After skeletal calfication begins
`` `` 30 - 40 days
`` Inspissated remains of fetal tissues
`` age determined by crown-rump lenght

Infectious
`` parvo
`` Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
`` Porcine Rabies Virus (PRV)
`` Lepto

Non Infectious
`` parity
`` litter size
`` mycotoxins
LITTE TARGETS

5
Birth Weight
`` 1.3 - 1.5 kg

Total Born
`` 12 - 12.5

Live Born
`` 11 - 11.5

Stillborn
`` 6 - 8%

Mummies
`` 1 - 2%
LITTER SIZE

INFLUENCING FACTORS

6
Parity

Genetics
`` sow
`` boar

Breeding Management
`` timing with ovulation

Previous Lactation
`` sow feeding
`` length

Previous Wean to Service Interval
`` nutrition

Disease
`` embryonic
`` fetal death loses
BIRTH WEIGHT

4 INFLUENCING FACTORS
Placnetation and intrauterine spacing

Genetics

Litter Size
`` total born

Gestational Feeding
`` beyond day 100
NEONATAL PIGLET CARE

KEY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES TO
REDUCED PRE WEANING MORTALITY

4
Encourage Colostrum Consumption
`` Epichorial Placenta
`` `` tf no AB transfer

Provide Warmth
`` creeps

Reduce Competion
`` cross fostering

Minimize other stressful activities
COLOSTRUM

WHAT

WHY
24 - 48 Hrs

High Level of IgG
`` mainly blood resident
`` tf systemic immunity
`` ie Arthritis
`` `` most common disease of baby pigs

Absorbed through GIT

Replaced by IgA in milk
~~ mainly mucosal
`` tf GI protection - diarrhea
`` provides immunity throughout lactation
ENHANCE COLSTRAL COMSUMPTION

3 WAYS
Split Suckle
`` sequester larger piglets
`` `` 2 hrs at a time

Collect and Store
`` fresh
`` frozen
`` via farrowing = continual oxitocin production
`` `` tf continual milk letdown

Supplement at Risk piglets
`` via tube or syringe
`` Small birth weigh
`` late birth order
PIGLET CHILLING

3 WHYS

4 PREVENTIONS
Pglets lack Brown Fat reserves

Rely on shivering for homethermy

Low birht weight piglets
`` significant risk
`` high SA to mass ratio

Increase farrowing Room Temp
`` for 2 - 3 days

Dry piglets at birth

Provide Supplementary heat
`` heat lamp

Provide Creep Area
`` creep box or cover
`` creep heat Pad
REDUCE PIGLET COMPETITION
Cross Foster
`` transfer piglets to litters/sows
`` `` best fit to compromised piglets needs

Birth - 24 hrs
`` sort litters
`` `` size
`` `` number

7 - 10 Days
`` small piglets to new born litter
`` regrouping runts/small piglets onto nurse sows
SUCKLING ORDER
Established with 24 hrs of farrowing

Front and Middle Mammary glands preferential

Rear Glands
`` lower milk production
`` higher crushing risk via hind legs

Unused glands
`` dry up if not occupied within 48 hrs
`` tf cannot foster after

Cannot add piglets to intact litters
PIGLET PROCESSING

4
Wolf Teeth Clipping
`` at birth
`` sharp side cutter
`` tip only
`` to gums
`` `` increased risk of infection
`` `` `` tooth fracture
`` `` `` cut gum
`` Some farms dont clip
`` `` descidus - fall out 4 - 6 weeks

Iron Admin
`` sows milk deficient
`` 200 mg/piglet
`` befor day 4
`` 20 ga x 1/2" needle
`` Dxtran
`` `` 1000 or 200 mg/ml
`` Gleptoferrin
`` `` 200 mg/ml

Dock Tails
`` bith - 4 days
`` prevent tail chwing in GF
`` side cutters
`` butane powered cauterizer
`` leave 2 - 3 cm

Identification
`` breeding stock reseach
`` `` ear tattoo
`` `` ear notches
`` `` ear tags
PIGLET CASTRATION

WHY

HOW
Prevent Boar Taint
`` reproductive hormones
`` `` skatole
`` `` indole
`` `` androsterone
`` present in all post pupertal intact males
`` adverse taste after cooking for some people

Open Technique
`` incise skin and vaginal tunic
`` 2 vertical or 1 horizontal incision
`` scapel or sharp side cutters
`` potential source of infection

Lower growth rate than boars
PWMT

WHAT

TARGET
Pre Weaning Mortality
` mortality occuring between birth and weaning

Overall - 8 - 10%
`` 70% in first 3 days
`` 15% day 4 - 7
`` 15% day 7 to weaning
PWMT

NON INFECTIVE

6 CAUSES AND TARGETS
Applicable to all farms

Trauma, Injury, Crushing, Laid on
`` 52%
`` mainly laid on by sow

Starvation
`` 17%
`` piglet of avg/above avg wt dies of malnutrion

Low Viability
`` low birth wt that fails to compete with littermates

Chilling
`` common low birth wt piglets
`` target 35 deg

Savaging
`` young sows - mainly gilts
`` delayed expression of maternal behaviour

Splay Legs
`` myofibrillar hypoplasia
`` inablility to adduct legs
`` mainly hind
`` tape
PWMT

INFECTIVE

2 CAUSES AND TARGETS
Farm Dependent

Scours Diarrhea
`` 9%
multiple viral and bacterial causes
`` E. coli most common
`` death via dehydration

Arthritis and Lameness
`` follows bactermia
`` usually lower joints of front and hind legs
PWMT

CHECKLIST

WHEN

LIST 7
Check if PWMT > 10%

Identify & address primary cause

Ensure proper neonate care
`` warmth
`` colustrum
`` timely fostering

Cull high risk sows
`` higheer parity
`` poor maternal ability
`` poor genetics

Avoid extremes of temp

Adequate facilities and equipment

Adequate Husbandry
`` training
`` equipment
`` nutrition

Control Diseases
`` biosecurity
WEANING PROCEDURES

4
Sows moved back to breeding barn

Piglets transferred to nursery

Day of week important
`` predetermines
`` `` day sows bred
`` `` next farrowing day
`` wean wed / thur
`` `` bred mon tues
`` `` farrwow thurs fri
`` important to avoid weekend work

Weaning age Controversial
`` range 12 - 28 days
`` avg 17 - 25 days
EARLY WEANING < 18 DAYS

ADVANTAGE 5
Improved Disease Control
`` < 10 days
`` didnt work

Increase litters / sow / yr
`` but WSI is extended
`` didnt work

Avoid excessive late lactation weight loss
`` requires proper nutrition before and during
`` fewer days to regain positive nutrient balance if underfed

Fewer days piglets at ris of PWMT

Eliminates need for Creep Feeding
EARLY WEANING < 18 DAYS

DISADVANTAGE 5
Lower Weaning Weight

Nursery diets
`` more expensive
`` more nutrient dense

Specialized nursery facilities and intensive management

Reduced Nursery feed consumption
`` lower post weaning growth rates

Reduces reproductive Performance
`` <16 days
`` extend WSI
LACTATION PERFORMANCE

6 METRICS

6 TARGEST
Weaning Weights
`` 5 - 8 kg / pigglet
`` `` age
`` `` parity
`` `` litter size

Adjusted 21 Day litter weaning weights
`` 65 - 70 kg
`` adjust for
`` `` pairity
`` `` age
`` `` liter size

Litter Growth Rates
`` 2.5kg / litter /day
`` `` depends on litter size

Per Weaning Mortality
`` < 10%
`` `` starvation cushes scours

Sow Lactation Feed INtake
`` 6 - 9 kg /day
`` depends on
`` `` lactation length
`` `` diet

Sow Reproductive Performance
`` 4 - 6 day WSI
`` also subsequent litter size
GOALS OF NURSERY UNIT

4
Provide a low stress environment after weaning

Successful transition from milk to solid feed

Maintain health and low mortality

Provide optimum conditions for growth
PERIOD OF MINIMUM INMMUNITY
3 - 4 Weeks

tf nursery piglets susceptible to manny diseases
SANITATION

4 STEP PROGRAM
Pre-soak

High pressure wash
`` remove biofilms

Disinfect

Dry prior to entry
BACTERIAL FILMS
Communities of microorganisms that populate environmental surfaces
`` organic matter and moisture provide excellent substrate
`` encased in matrix of bacterial polysacchardies and mineral scale
`` protected from disinfectnst

Sanitation products used to break down biofilms
`` degreaser and detergent
`` acid and alkali washes for the scale
AGRICULTURAL DISINFECTANTS

5 TYPES

3 METHODS
Iodophors

Hypochlorites

Quaternary Ammoniums

Formaldeydes

Creosols

Premixed
`` backpack sprayer or pull cart
`` best to get right [ ] in right place

Garden Spraye
`` dial dilution setting

Pressure Washer
`` faoming best bc sticks to walls
NURSERY PIG FLOW
Segregation of weanded pigs from sows and finisher pigs
`` enhances disease control
`` facilitates expansion
`` facilitates specialization

Onsite Nursery
`` seperate rooms under one roof
`` some transmsission to nursery

Off Site Nursery
`` very little disease transmission

With every nursery farm
`` segragation by age
`` each production week in seperate room

If pigs from multiple barns are mixed at weaning
`` AIAO by site provides optimum disease control
`` `` by room in same building - good
`` `` by building on same site - better
`` by site - best but highest cost
NURSERY FACILITIES

3 KEY FEATURES
Animal Housing
`` 6 - 8 weeks
`` growth from 5 - 30 kg
12 - 50 pigs / pen
`` 3 - 3.2 sqft / pig
`` 28 - 30 deg

Penning
`` flooring porous plastic or metal
`` Self Feeders
`` `` dry or wet feed
`` Water
`` `` nipple or bowls

Good Ventilation Critical
`` Exhaust moisture and gases
`` supply fresh air
`` provide supplementary heat
VENTILATION SYSTEM

5 COMPONENTS
Exhaust Fans

Inlets

Heaters

Controller and Sensors

Recirculation Ducts
`` optional
NURSERY

3 BASIC PROCEDURES
Termperatures
`` weaning 28 - 30 deg C
`` dropped 1 - 1.5 deg per week
`` minimum 20 - 22 deg

Water Flow
`` 0.5 to 1.0 L /min
`` gentle pressure
`` shoulder height
`` `` 30 - 50 cm

Lighting
`` 8 hry / day typical
`` nightlights recommended
RECENTLY WEANED PIGS

3 PHYSIOLOGIC FACTORS
Weaning Age and Weight

GIT Development
`` enzymes lactase switching to proteases and amylase
`` villi health

Social Stresse
`` weaning
`` relocation
`` mixing
WEANING AGE AND WEIGHT
Considerable variation

Improper fostering

Older and heavier pigs
`` always competitive advantage
`` better GI enzyme activity
GIT ENZYMES
Considerable enxymatic changes concide with weaning

Decreased lactase
`` 3 - 7 weeks

Increased Amylase and protease
`` 2 - 7 weeks
VILLI HEALTH

WHAT HAPPENS

6 FACTORS
Blunting via

malabsorptition - tf osmotic diarrhea

Weaning

Weaning Stress

Soybean meal hypersensitivity

Starvation / anorexia

disease
`` scours via TGE virsu

Environmental Stress
``` chilling
NURSERY FEEDING

2 PRINCIPLES
Extremely Important Period
`` transition from sow's regular calls for fluid food (milk) to self serve dry food
`` samll appetite
`` `` tf every mouthfull counts
`` radical change in ingredients required to match changing enzymes
`` Inadequeate nutrition can trigger scours

Feed Presentation
`` 3 - 4 x per day for 5 - 7 days post weaning
`` creep feeders, trays, floors, feeders
`` variation in social maturity tf 5 - 7 feeding stations per 30 pigs
`` wet feed or gruel preferred by some
NURSERY FEEDING STAGES
Minimum 3 Stages
`` 7 - 8 weeks in nursery

5 - 30 kg Growth

Reduced complexity with growth

Reduced costs with
`` growth
`` increased ADFI
NURSERY FEED

STAGE 1
Complex Diet
`` 5 - 7 days

Expensive $1.50 - $1.8 /kg

First Exposure to dry feed

Pelleted or crumbled

Purchased from Feed Company

Many complex ingredients to match changing enzymes

`` plasmas protein
`` whey or lactose
`` fishmeal
`` soybean meal 5 - 10%
`` oats and oat groats
`` wheat or corn
`` fat or oil
`` vitamins or minerals

High Nutrient Density

High palitiablilty
NURSERY FEED

STAGE 2
Transition Diet
`` 10 - 14 days

Expensive but less cost than stage 1

Less expensive plant based proteins
`` plasma prodein is reduced
`` whey or lactose reduced
`` soybean meal increased
`` oats oat groats
`` wheat or corn increased
`` fat or oil
`` vitamins minerals
Pelleted or meal

High Nutrient Density

Feed intake of piglet is increased

Reduced Palitablility
`` bc increased appetite
NURSERY FEED

STAGE 3
Simple Diet
`` 3 - 4 weeks

Least cost formulated
`` best value ingredients

Pelleted or Meal

Lowwer nutrient Density
`` plasma protien - none
`` whey or lactose - none
`` fishmeal - ususlly none
`` soybean meal - increased
`` oats oat groats - possible
`` wheat or corn - increased
`` barley - possible but high fibre
`` fat or oil
`` vialmins / minerals

Increased Appetite
`` tf reduced palitablility
NURSERY FEED BUDGET
Weight of feed per stage

Number of days for each stage

Depends on
`` farm
`` weaning age
`` weaning weight
PLASMA PROTEINS

VS

PLANT PROTEINS
Some plant proteins esp soybean meal can be hyper allergenic
`` tf introduce early at low levels

Plamsa protein
`` porcine blood only post BSE
`` highly palatable
`` stimulates feed intake
`` contains AB - effect uncertain
`` very expensive
`` hygenic collection from slaughter plants
`` spray drying reduces pathogenic potential
NURSERY

7 FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH RATE AND FEED INTAKE
Temperature
`` 28 deg C
`` `` inversely proportional to feed intake

Feed presention trays, feeder
`` 1:3 ratio of feeding stns

Frequency of feeding
`` 3 - 4 times per day
`` staff emulates sow call for nursing

Pend Density

Feeder
`` space
`` type
`` size

Water
`` availability
`` $2 nipples vs $30 bowls
`` delivery

Disease
NURSERY PERFORMANCE TARGETS

5
Average Daily Gain ADG
`` 4.5 - 7.5 kg = 210 - 230 g/d
`` 7.5 - 10 kg = 325 - 370 g/d
`` 10 - 25 kg = 575 - 650 g/d
`` Average = 450 g/d

Feed:Gain Ratio FCR
`` 1.4 - 1.5

Feed Cost
`` $10 - $12 / pig

Weight at Dispatch
`` 28 - 30 kg

Mortality
`` < 2%
GROWER FINISH UNIT

8 GOALS
Growth
`` 25 - 115 (123) kg

Feed Efficency
`` 60% of cost to produce pig

Market at optimum weight

Idendification prior to marketing
`` shoulder tattoo

Control Disease
`` minimize mortality

Ensure Food Safety
`` historically trichinella
`` currently salmonella
`` `` 4% of food salmonella

Ensure Animal Welfare
`` vets validate

Select Breeding Gilts
`` if gilt multiplication
GF PIG FLOW
Animal Flow
`` 16 - 18 wks total

May be moved between Stages or Single Stage

Room Sanitation

AIAO
`` by room
`` by building
`` by site
`` some pigs may leave system at nursery stage as feeder pigs
`` `` helps maintain AIAO integrity bc of room size limits
FINSHSER FACILITIES

3 FEATURES
Animal Housing
`` conventional pens 12 - 18
`` large group pens 50 - 500

flooring
`` concrete
`` partial slats
`` total slats

Space
`` Gower 5 sqtf
`` Finisher 8 sqft
`` Rule of Thumb
`` `` 1 sqft per 10 kg live weight
LARGE GROUP PENS

6 CONSIDERATIONS
Recent innovation
`` reduce labour costs
`` weighing and sorting for market

Large Pens
`` 400 - 700 per pen

May include Auto Sorter
`` scale and gate
`` Feeding phase all open
`` marketing phase - heavey pighs go to marketing pen
GF BASIC HUSBANDRY

3
Room Temp
`` 20 - 22 deg C at entry
`` 14 deg by by 50 - 60 kg
`` slat and bedding type affect required temp
`` Behavior indicates effective temp
`` `` huddling = cold
`` `` tail biting = drafts or wrong temp

Water
`` swinger (play tf drink) or staionary nipples
`` 1 L/min gentle press
`` shoulder height 60 - 75 cm
`` may be additional nipples in wet/dry feeder

Lighing
`` 8 hr / day
`` nightlights reccomended
PIG GROWTH PHYSIOLOGY
Growth Not Linear
`` sigmoidal from farrowing
`` lean tissue (muscle and bone)
`` fat

Genetically Advanced Pigs
`` proprotionately more lean growth

Proportion of fat growth increases with feed intake
GRWOTH RATE FACTORS

6
Genotype

Gender
`` boar > barrows > gilts

Helath

Pen Density

Environment

Nutrition
FAT & LEAN MEASUREMENTS

WHY 3

WHERE

TARGET
Ensure Genetic progress

Help Formulate Diets
`` estimation of AA requirements

Estimate Lean Content
`` carcass premium to producer

P2 Site
`` last rib
`` 5 cm off midline

Fat
`` 14 - 20 mm

Lion
`` 55 - 70 mm
FEEDING GF PIGS

6 PRINCIPLES
Nutritional program must be adapted
`` 30 - 120 kg pigs

Appetite increases with
`` age
`` weight

Male appetite > female

Barrows have higher fat deposition

Restricted feed intake
`` reduces fat depostion

Gender differences
`` apparent > 75 - 80 kg live weight
`` split sex feeding
SPLIT SEX FEEDING
Lower nutrient levels supplied to Barrows > 75 kg

Greater appetites

Hiper fat deposition

Lower lean deposition

Reduce feed Costs
`` $2 - $3 per pig
PHASE FEEDING
Stepwise reduction in nutrient levels over time to best match pig growth rate and feed intake

Reduce Feed Cost
`` $5 - $6 per pig

Increase Barley

Reduce Wheat
AMINO ACID BALANCE
Balance for AAs not Crude Protein

Limiting AAs
`` Lysine
`` Threonine
`` Methionine
`` Total Methionine + Cysteine
`` Tryptophan
IDEAL PROTEIN BALANCE
AA supplied at levels that best meet the demands for
`` maintenance
`` protein growth

Supplied to match levels in muscle protein
`` Ideal Protein

AA supplied in excess are excreted
`` requires energy

Diets balanced from Lysine requirements
NUTRIENTS AND INGREDIENTS

4 CATAGORIES AND TYPICALS
Protein
`` soybean meal
`` canola meal
`` peas
`` synthetic AAs
`` `` lysine, threeonine, methionine

Energy ie Fat and Carb
`` vegetable oil, tallow
`` Grains - wheat barley corn

Macroninerals - salt calcium phosphorus
`` Salt - sodium & potassium
`` Calcium - limestone
`` phosphourus - dical, monocal

Microminerals and vitamins
`` premix
`` vitamines
`` micromineral mix
GF

FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY
Both critical to succes of GF unit
`` ADFI drives growth rate
`` FCR influences cost per pig
`` `` 2.8 optimal average
`` `` weaner 1.2
`` `` market 4.0

Feed = 60% of cost of production
GF FEED INTAKE AND EFFICIENCY

8 FACTORS AFFECTING ADFI AND FCR
Older and larger
`` ADFI better
`` FCR worse

Feed Wastage
`` ADFI better
`` FCR worse

Feed Restriction
`` ADFI worse
`` FCR worse

Water Restriction
`` ADFI worse
`` FCR worse

Higher Energy in diet
`` ADFI variable
`` FCR better

Smaller Particle Size
`` ADFI varialble
`` FCR better

Gilt vs Barrow
`` ADFI worse
`` FCR better

Higher temp
`` ADFI worse
`` FCR worse

Disease
`` ADFI worse
`` FCR worse
GF PERFORMANCE TARGETS

6
ADG
`` 800 - 900 g/day

FCR
`` 2.7 - 3.0

Feed Cost
`` $30 - $40 per pig

Weight at Dispatch
`` 115 live / 93 dressed

Mortality
`` < 3%

Turns (cycles / yr)
`` 3 ie 52/17
`` 120 day GF cycle

% Marketed in Core
`` 90 - 95%
HEALTH STATUS

3 CATEGORIES
Convential Health
`` normal barn

High Health Status
`` SPF - Specific Pathogen Free
`` MD - Minimal Diseas

Gnotobiotic
`` research
`` CS and no Colosturm
`` `` tf no ABs
`` tf 35 day life max
SPF DERVIVATIONS

WHY

5 HOWS
Breeding Farms
`` objective to prevent disease transmission from sow to piglets
`` partuition and lactation

Piglets relacated away from sow

Surgical bays divided via water bath
`` dirty sow
`` clean piglets

Does not prevent vertically transmitted diseases

CDCD
`` c section derived and colostrum deprived

CD
`` c section derived

Hysterctomy

Medicated Early Weaning

Embryo Transfer
CDCD
C section Derived Colostrum Deprived

Gnotobiotics for Research

sow is anethetized
`` tf piglets sleep 12 hrs

Piglets indivudually delivered by CS

Immediately remove from sow

Reared in incubators or bubbles

DO NOT receive colostrum
CD
C section derived
`` hysterotomy

sow is anethetized
`` tf piglets sleep 12 hrs
`` tf no colstrum for 12 hrs

Piglets indivudually delivered by CS

Immediately remove from sow
HYSTERECTOMY
Sow Super Oxeygenated

Sow paralyzed via succinyl choline

Sow stunned via captive bolt

Gravid uterus is removed and transfed to clean area

Piglet removed from uterus

Fostered onto nurse sows at recipient barn

Piglets receive colostrum

Must be delivered in 2 minutes from time of stunning

Piglets always inside on dirty side

low cost
MEDICATED EARLY WEANING
Sows farrow normmally

Piglets must consume adequate colstrum

Piglets weaned early

Reared offsite or isolated site

Weaning age based on diseases to be eliminated

Sowas and / or piglets may be medicated or vaccinnated

Used to eliminate specific pathogens

Some pathogens NOT eliminated
EMBRYO TRANSFER
Approaching commercial application for breeding stock

Fresh Embryos only
`` 4 - 8 cell stage

Collection
`` surgical
`` slaughter

recipients
`` typically surgical bc place at uterine tip
`` also non surgical
BIO SECURITY

DEFINITION
Procedures that are enforced for the purpose of preventing disease introduction

External
`` into a farm

Internal
`` within a farm
`` rooms, areas, ages
MAINTAINING BIOSECURITY

INTERNAL

6
Proper Pig Flow
`` AIAO rooms
`` minimize age mixing
`` no hold backs

Ensure timely and judicious treatment of sick animals

Ensure timely euthanasia of chronic animimals

Boot Baths

Personnel Hygeine when handling sick pigs

Adequate room sanitation and drying procedures
BIO SECURITY

DEFINITION
Procedures that are enforced for the purpose of preventing disease introduction

External
`` into a farm

Internal
`` within a farm
`` rooms, areas, ages
BIOSECURITY

EXTERNAL

8
Isolate or Quarantine replacement stock
`` quarantine barns reccomended
`` > 100 m
`` 30 - 60 days
`` `` clinical signs
`` `` serological verification

Isolated Site
`` production > 3.2 km
`` breeding > 8 km

Deterrents
`` signage
`` gates
`` fences

Rigid Entry procedures
`` sign in book
`` pig freedom period
`` shower
`` `` forces change of clothes
`` disinfection
`` `` supplies
`` `` toos

Biosecure Feed Manufacturing and Delivery
`` Auddit feed manufacturing and delivery protocols
`` inspect commerical and on fram mills
`` `` salmonella
`` prevent corss contamination during delivery
`` seal access from wild birds and poultry units

Biosecure Dead Stock Removal
`` Rendering
`` `` mulitple stops tf risk
`` `` truck snaitation
`` `` safe pickup zone
`` Composting
`` `` safe location
`` `` thoroughness
`` `` wild life access

Rodent Control
`` mice rats birds dogs cats
`` baiting and sighting logs
`` inlet screens

Load Out and Transportation
`` drivers
`` `` stay outside
`` `` clean boots and clothes
`` one way flow from barn to truck
`` wash and disinfect trailer each load
`` specific trailer for barn
NON INFECTIOUS HEALTH CONDITIONS

6
Hernias

Cryptorchids
`` ridglings

Splay legs

Aural hematomas

Vices

Procine Stress Sysndrome PSS
SCROTAL HERNIAS
Common congenital defect

Detected at castration

Primarily males and unilateral

Enlarge and potentially strangulate SI

INguinal rind closure
`` 10 - 15 kg
`` remove tsticle
`` replace SI
`` close ring
`` producers trained

Inguinal Ring Taping
`` castrate pig normally
`` replace SI into abdomen
`` 3 strips adhesive tape
`` figure 8 starting at inguinar ring
`` high success rate
UMBILICAL HERNIAS
Often start as umblical abscesses

Either gender

Association with umbilical stress

Difficult to detect in early nursery

Baseball size in early grower

Basketball size in finisher

Excoriation = active infection = condemnation

Surgery not done

Market hogs early

Euthenize if skin ulcerated
RIDGLINGS
Cryptorchids

Generally unilateral

Detected at castration

May descend on own

Surgery - 15 kg
`` sedation and local anesthesia
`` post surgical AB
`` producers trained
`` 50% - 85% success
MYOFIBRILLAR HYPOPLASIA
Splay Legs
`` immature skeletal muscles

Multifactorial Inherited
`` low birth weight
`` prenatal maternal stress or malnutrition
`` premature farrowing induction
`` males more susceptable

2 0r 4 legs affected

Succumb to malnutrition and chilling

Tape hind legs
`` flexed
`` `` 3 - 4 hrs and release
`` `` repeate 1 - 2 x
`` above hocks continually for 2 - 3 days
AURAL HEMATOMAS
Picking pig up by ear

Early nurser stage

Fighting

Shrinks when healed
`` cauliflower ear

Do nothing
`` preffered

Lance
`` lilely to refill
`` possible abscess

Suture and pressure bandage
`` not feasible or tolerated
BEHAVIORAL VICES
Tailbiting and Flankbiting

Multifactorial Trigger
`` enviro stress
`` boredom
`` overcrowding
`` feed and water deprivation

Noted late nuresry to marketing

Highly variable incidenc

Huge industry animal welfare issue

Misdirected natural rooting and chewing behavior

Eventually develops into blood lust

Prevention
`` dock tails
`` provide enrichment
`` `` toys, straw
`` eliminate stresses

Treatment
`` elastrate tail
`` remove biting pigs if found
`` parentera AB
PORCINE STRESS SYNDROME
Genetic mutation in ryr-1 gene
`` adjacent ot halothane induced malignant hypothermia gene Hal 1843

Autosomal Recessive

Results in
`` heavy muscling
`` susceptibilty to stress
`` death
`` inferior pork PSE Pale Soft Exudative

Genetic Testing Available

Control gene in populations
`` eliminated from commercial herds
VACCINATION PROGRAMS

WHY

TYPES

WHEN
Vaccination stimulates active immunity

Multivalent vaccinines contain multiple diseases

Attenuated
`` modified live
`` mix with saline
`` `` then limited shelf life
`` usually avoided during pregnancy
`` `` placental transfer

Killed - virus and bacteria
`` prone to freezing

Pre Breeding
`` sows and gilts
`` protect conceptus form disease tha infect sow and corss placenta
`` ie Parvovirus, PRRS

Pre Farrowing
`` sows and gilts
`` protect young piglets by enhancing passive immunity
`` colostral and milk AB
`` ie E. coli

Feeding Herd
`` pigs from birht to marketing
`` protect pigs by stimulating Active Immunity prior to anticipated exposure
`` ie erysiplas

Good econimics to vaccinate sow rather than piglets

Highest risk is needle breakage
CQA
CANADIAN QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

HACCP based on farm food sfety program

Developed 1998 by Cdn Pork Council
`` identification of hazards
`` `` chemical - drug residues
`` `` physical - needles
`` `` biological - salmonella
`` steps to elimate or minimize
`` documentation of production practices
`` implementation of Good Production Practices

Verification and Validation
`` usually via DVMS

Voluntary Animal Care Assesssment
`` stalls not addressed
`` Validated via DVMs
GLOBAL PORK TRADE

IMPORTERS
Japan
`` affluent
`` premium product

Russia
`` 65% of Brazilian Exports
`` low cost of labour, environment, feed
`` low health status

Mexico

USA

Korea
GLOBAL PORK TRADE

EXPORTERS
EU
`` mainly Dennmark

USA

Canada
`` vunerable
`` `` trade barriers
`` `` FADs ie Foot and Mouth

Brazil

China
CANADIAN PORK EXPORTS
50 -60% of production exported

Dramatic Growth in last 15 yrs

Competitiveness drivig force behind WC expansion

USA Canadas #1 trading partner

signifcant increase in <50 kg pigs to USA
`` easy access to processing plants
`` cheap feeds - corn
`` closer consumer
`` `` ship small pigs

Future Trends
`` Sow units in Canada
`` Feeder units in USA

4 Year Price Cycles
`` historically driven
`` supply and demand
`` hog futures market
PRICES
Daily price establishe by Provincial Marketing Board
`` Sask Pork International

Market Hogs sold Live Weight
`` 110 - 123 kg
`` $130 - $160 per 100 kg

Produces Paid on Dressed Weight
`` head on
`` 78 - 80% of live

Paid Premium based on carcass quality
`` INDEX

Culled Animals
`` live weight basis
`` no carcass index
`` all further processing
`` Boars - $10 per 100 kg
`` sows - $100 per 100 kg

All Boars and most sows exported to USA

Many sows sold to local abattoirs
`` increase price in fall
`` `` blend game sausage
REVENUE SOURCES OF PRODUCERS

4
Isoweans
`` piglets at weaning
`` 5 - 8 kg

Feeder Pigs
`` pigs at nursery dispatch
`` 25 - 30 kg

Live Market Hogs
`` end of finisher
`` 110 - 123 kg

Culls - sows and boars
PRODUCER PAYMENT

3 WAYS
Isoweans and Feeders
`` contract price established by broker
`` per head or live weight
`` isoweans - $30 -$40 each
`` feeders - $50 - $80 each

Sows and Boars
`` live weight x current market price
`` less transport and marketing costs
`` sow $63/100 kg
`` boar $22/100 kg

Market Hogs
`` Dressed Wieght
`` Carcass Index
`` `` Backfat
`` `` lion muscle depth
`` `` Loin - fat Spread
`` Market Price
`` Premiums
`` `` Health
`` `` Weight
`` Demerits
`` `` trim losses ie absceses
MARKET HOG CARCASS

GRADING AND PRICING
Dressed Carcass Weight
`` warm
`` eviscerated
`` head on
`` 78% - 80% of live weight

Ultrasonically probed at P2
`` backfat
`` lion

Assigned Carcass Index
`` warm carcass weight
`` Estimated Lean Yield %

Estimated Lean Yield %
`` bone and muscle on carcass
`` backfat and loin measurements
`` funky formula

Add Premiums
`` Weight over 85 kg
`` Loin Spread (loin - backfat)
PRODUCTION COST

BY COUNTRY
Brazil

canada

Ireland

Spain

US
MAJOR EXPENSES
Feed
`` 48%

Payroll
`` 13%

Interest and Depreciation
`` 12%

Utilities Insurance Taxes
`` 8%

Administration
`` 5%

etc etc

Veterinary Supplies and Services
`` 3%
TOTAL EXPENSE PER HOG
$125 - $150
VETERINARY EXPENSES
Low but not insignificant

Increase rapidly during disease outbreaks

When vets do not produce value
`` constantly challenged to reduce costs

Producer ROI is 18%
`` tf vets need to deliver this value on vet expenses
HOG UNIT PROFITABILITY
Market Price
`` most important

Pig Flow
`` 2nd most important

ROI is 18%
`` tf vets must focus on providing this value on expenses
`` improve productivity ie throughput
`` improve effiency
`` `` reduce feed costs etc
`` reduce expenses
`` `` including veterinary costs
VETERINARY SEVICES

4 CATAGORIES
Traditional Professional Services
`` biosecrurity and sanitation
`` Disease Treatement
`` `` diagnostics
`` `` control
`` `` prevention
`` Quality Assurance (CQA)

Non-Traditional Proffesional Services
`` Production
`` `` records
`` `` reproduction
`` `` throughput
`` `` efficiency
`` Nutrition
`` diet formulation
`` `` quality control
`` Human Resources Management
`` training
`` hiring and firing

Animal Health Products
`` Pharmaceutical
`` Vaccines
`` Disinfectants
`` Supplies

Diagnostics
`` In house bacterial culture
`` External
`` `` serology
`` `` necropsy
`` `` culture
``
VETERINARIAN PAYMENT

3 WAYS
Proffesional Services
`` Hourly or per diem
`` Travel and Milage
`` time on farm
`` time in office ie reports and phone

Animal Health Products
`` Competitive
`` `` high margin low volume
`` `` Feed Lot Health sells lower than Veterinary cost
`` low mark ups 5% - 10%
`` `` 7% minimum inventory cost

Diagnostics
`` Fee for Service Basis
`` surcharge per submission