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25 Cards in this Set

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NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY

SEQUENCE OF EVENTS

SIX EVENTS
Nutrient Deficiency

Biochemical Deficiency

Functional Defect

Microscopic Anatomical Defect

Macroscopic Anataomical Defect

Morbidity, Death
PROXIMATE PRINCIPLES

WENDE SYSTEM

SIX
WATER

CRUDE PROTEIN(CP)total protein in feed
- assumes crude protein is 16% N
- tf %N x 6.25 = %CP
- True Protein ie made from amino acids
- Non Protein Nitrogen (NPN)

ETHER EXTRACT(EE) Fat
- chloroform/methanol used to remove fat from animal sources

ASH minerals
- what remains in furnace

CRUDE FIBRE (CF)cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin

NITROGEN FREE EXTRACT (NFE) non fibre carbohydrate
- calculate via 100% less the % of water, CP, EE, Ash and CF
CRUDE PROTEIN(CP)
- assumes crude protein is 16% N
- total protein in feed

- tf %N x 6.25 = %CP
- True Protein ie made from amino acids
NPN
- Non Protein Nitrogen
ETHER EXTRACT(EE)
- Fat
- chloroform/methanol used to remove fat from animal sources
ASH
minerals
- what remains in furnace
CRUDE FIBRE (CF)
- cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
ADF
- Acid Detergent Fibre

- fibre extracted with acid detergent

- remains after extraction of hemicellulose

- tf CELLULOSE and LIGNIN

- tf low digestibility

- tf use full for determining enery of feed
NDF
- neutral detergent

- Acid Detergent Fibre

- fibre extracted with neutral detergent

- plant cell wall tf HEMI CELLULOSE, CELLULOSE and LIGNIN

- higher digestibility than ADF

- used to determine LIMIT OF INTAKE ie Beef and Dariy cows max 1.3% of BW NDF per day
BW
Body Weight
GE
Gross Energy

- heat released when feed completely oxidized in bomb calorimetor
DIGESTIBILITY OF CARBOHYDRATES
STARCH
- All Species 80% - 90%

NDF

- Ruminants 50% - 90%
- Horse 35% - 50%
- Poultry 25% - 35%
- Pig 5%-30%
- Dog 10% - 30%
- Human 25% - 40%
HE
Hay Equivalent

- 90% Dry Matter (DM) as most hay is about 10% water
WATER CONTENT OF FEEDS

3 WAYS
As Is = As Fed = Air Dry
- the actual amount of water in feed as it is fed to animal

Adjusted to 90% Dry Mater (DM)
- aka Hay Equivalent (HE)
- 10% moisture in feed

Dry Matter (DM) Basis
- 0% moisture in feed
DM
Dry Matter (DM) Basis
- 0% moisture in feed
WATER CONTENT EXAMPLE

35% DM and 3% CP As Fed

WHAT IS CP ON DM BASIS

WHAT IS CP as HE
35% DM means 65% Water

CP (100% DM Basis) =

3%CP x (100%DM / 35%DM)

= 8.57% CP on 100% Dry Matter Basis

HE = 90% DM - start with 100% DM Basis

HE = 8.57% x 90%

= 7.7% CP as HE (90% DM)
CONCENTRATES
Feeds that primarily supply ENERGY

- high energy, low fibre (<18%), low protein (<20%)

- Cereal Grains: Barley, corn, oats, wheat

- Grain milling by products: wheat bran, rice bran. Note for ruminants can be >18% fibre if fine particles because too small to act as forage

- Food Processing By Products: molasses, distillers and brewers byproducts

- Roots and Tubers: trunips, potatoes cassava
PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS
Feeds that contain >20% protein on DM Basis

- Oilseed Meals: canola, soybean, cottonseed, linseed (flax)left over from oil extraction

- Grain Legumes: peas, lentils, beans, lupins

- Animal Proteins: fishmeal, meat and bone meal, feather meal, NPN for ruminants

- Rumen Bypass Protein: dehydrated alfalfa, corn gluten meal. Note usually heat treated to make insoluble so inaccessable to rumen bacteria
ROUGHAGES
Bulky material with HIGH FIBRE content and low nutrient density

- Pasture: grass or legumes

- Silage - anaerobically fermented vegetative material. Preserved at low pH via acetic and lactic acid. Sourkraut for Cows.

Hay - cut and dried pasture

Straw - stalks of ceral grain crops. Very low protein
FEED ADDITIVES
- Mineral supplements

- Vitamin supplements

- Amino Acids: especially lysine and methionine for pigs and poultry

- Perservatives: Antioxidants such as Vit C & E to protect other vitamins, mold inhibitors, Bytylate Hydroxy Tolune (BHT), acids to lower pH

- Buffers: sodium bicarbonate

- Flavors: Anise, Fenugreed, Licorice for palatibility or preference

- Pellet Binders: lignosulfonate, bentonite
FOUR FEED CLASSIFICATIONS
CONCENTRATES

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS

ROUGHAGES

FEED ADDITIVES
RATION CHARACTERISTICS

SWINE
- Cereal Grains 70 - 80%

- Oil Meals soy or canola for protein

- Mineral & Vitamin Supplements

- Synthetic Amino Acids: lysine, methionine, cysteine
RATION CHARACTERISTICS

DAIRY COWS
- Forages (Hay, Silage Pasture) 40% lactating - 90% dry

- Cereal Grains

- Oil Meals and byproduct feeds for bypass protein

- Mineral & Vitamin Supplements

- Buffers - sodium bicarb
DIGESTABILITY
Proportion of the feed not excreted in the feces.

tf assumed to be absorbed. Not a great assumption becasue of urine and gaseous losses.
METHODS OF DETERMINING DIGESTABILITY
MEASUREMENT
- Total Collection: Apparent Digestibiliy and True Digestability
- Indicator Methods

ESTIMATION
- Chemical analysis ie ADF
- Enzyme Laboritory methods ie solubility
- Artificial Rumen (in vitro)
- Rumen Nylon Bag (in sacco) pore and particle size important.
- Mobile Nulon bag moves through all or part (duodenum to avoid femrnetation effects) of intestine in surgically altered animals
-