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128 Cards in this Set

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Macroclimate, Mesoclimate, and Microclimate
Macroclimate is the climate of a region. Mesoclimate differs from the macroclimate of the region due to differences in altitude, slope inclination, aspect or distance from large bodies of water; this term usually describes the climate of a particular vineyard. Microclimate is the climate immediately within and surrounding a plant canopy and can differ within a few centimetres. It may be influenced by canopy management.
Climatic needs for grape growing
Minimum 1500 hours sunshine to ripen. 30-50 degrees latitude. Red grapes need more heat than white grapes. Require at least 700mm of rain. Systems of climate classification?
"The terroir is the coming together of the climate, soil and the landscape. It is the combination of an infinite number of factors: temperature by night and by day, rainfall distribution, hours of sunlight, slope and drainage to name but a few. All these factors react with each other to form, in each part of the vineyard, what the French call terroir." -Bruno Prats of Cos d'Estournel
How the vine is cultivated or managed.
A tiny aphid-like insect that attacks the roots of grapevines.

-Initially called phylloxera vastatrix.

-Now (more correctly) called Dactylasphaera vitifoliae.
Microscopic, unsegmented roundworms that feed on plant roots by puncturing and sucking the cell contents; Nematode damage to wine grapes comes from their feeding activity, which reduces water and nutrient uptake of the plant, ultimately affecting vigor and yield.
Pierce's Disease
A lethal disease of grapevine, is caused by the bacterium and is spread by certain kinds of leafhoppers known as Glassy-winged Sharpshooters.
Flavescence Dorée
Impacts include reduced vitality of vines, yield reductions, and reduced wine quality due to high acid and low sugar contents of fruit from infected plants; caused by Phytoplasms, which are are microscopic plant pathogens, similar to bacteria, but much smaller and lacking cell walls. They live in the vascular system of plants and are spread by sap-feeding insects, including leafhoppers and planthoppers.
AKA Powdery Mildew, isn't dependent on moisture like other fungi and is found in the dryer California climate where most fungi don't do well. It attacks most parts of the vine including the fruit, leaves, shoots, and tendrils. Powdery mildew can affect the smell, taste, and color of wines made from infected grapes.
AKA Downy Mildew, likes wet, humid areas. Not a problem in California but is found east of the Rocky Mountains, where Vitis Vinifera vines are susceptible to it. Downy mildew produces a white fuzzy growth on the underside of the leaves and attacks the flowers and the fruit. Mildew is of American origin but has been exported to most other winegrowing regions.
AKA Shatter. 'Poor fruit set'. Is the consequence of metabolic and weather conditions that cause either the grapevine flowers to not pollinate, so they do not becomes berries, or the tiny berries to fall off soon after they form. This means a poor fruit set. Gewurz and Merlot, Grenache particularly susceptible.
Physiological disorder of the vine that occurs when rain or cold weather interrupts the growth of grape berries at the time of flowering. This can interrupt fertilization and cause many berries to fail to develop, remaining small and seedless, even when the rest of the bunch is full-sized and ripe. Zinfandel part. susceptible.
Eutypia Dieback
(Eutypiose)-"The Dead Arm" strangulation of a limb, affects circulation. Caused by a fungus, more common in older vineyards, symptoms include Stunted spring shoot growth, yellowed and cupped newly emerged leaves, shed blossom clusters. Symptoms best seen in spring. Reduces yields, eventually kills vine.
Hybrids aka Direct Producers
A vine or grape created by breeding two vines from different species (vinifera + labrusca) attempting to get the good fruit of vinifera with the phylloxera/disease resistance of labrusca.
A vine or grape created by breeding two varieties of the same species (e.g., Muller-Thurgau; Pinotage).
A plant that has been propagated asexually, usually by cuttings or by grafting. Cloning is done to reproduce plants with the distinctive traits of its "mother" plant such as high productivity, disease resistance, and/or better adaptability to environmental conditions.
Pesticides and Herbicides
Pesticides are chemicals that have various levels of toxicity. Used to prevent, destroy, repel or reduce the harmful effects of fungi, bacteria, insects, nematodes, etc.

Herbicides are chemicals applied to vineyards to control the growth of weeds. Can be either contact or systemic.
Organic Viticulture
A system of grape growing that does not employ industrially synthesized compounds as additions to the soil or vines to maintain or increase fertility, or to combat pest problems.
Biodynamic Viticulture
The most extreme, ideological, and even spiritual of all alternative approaches to viticulture. Heavily influenced by the *theories of Rudolf Steiner.* Similar approach to other forms of organic viticulture but views the soils as an integral part of the symbiosis between planet, air and cosmos.
Famous Biodynamic Producers/Areas
Nicolas Joly, owner of Coulée de Serrant in the Loire Valley; Lalou Bize Leroy, Anne Claude Leflaive and part of Domaine de la Romanée Conti in Burgundy; Zind Humbrecht in Alsace; and Chapoutier in the Rhône
Reasons for pruning
Yield control and quality. Balancing fruit and vegetative growth. Pruning method used depends on the training system employed. Ancient Egyptians and Romans pruned Typically done in winter after first frost.
Spur Pruning
Cut to include only 2-3 buds- commonly used for free-standing vines like Gobelet.
Cane Pruning
Longer than Spur with 5 to 15 buds.
Factors influencing vine-training methods
Vine-vines natural vigour needs to be considered. Climate-e.g. Head training suited to warmer climates with lower rainfall. Also, soil fertility, cost and method of harvesting.
Important stat. in wine production, measure of how much a vineyard produces. Can be tons/acre: *1 ton/acre=17.5 hl/ha.* 1 tonne/ha=7hl/ha. Why is it generally accepted that lower yields are good for wine quality? Heavily cropped vines with low leaf to fruit ratio ripen more slowly.
Vine Pests
phylloxera vastatrix, Grape moths, Red and yellow spider mites, Nematodes, Birds and Animals.
What is the only AOC in which triage is mandatory?
Maceration Pelliculaire
Maceration with skin contact for whites.
How is the fermentation process expressed?
Sugar + Yeast= Alcohol + Carbon Dioxide.

Must weight. 17 grams/litre of sugar = 1% alcohol. ?
Main types of presses
Traditional Press- vertical screw or basket. Basically the lid of the press is screwed down on the mass of grapes.
Vaslin Press-horizontal screw press. Has two pistons that move toward or away from one another depending on the direction in which the press is rotated. The pistons are connected by chains that break up the mass of grapes. The process can be highly automated, and a single unit can perform the entire series of events from receiving grapes to releasing must.
Pneumatic Press-balloon press. Has a cylindrical bladder that is inflated by air (or by cold water), and which presses the grapes gently between the surface of the bladder and the exterior surface.
Addition of sugar to the must prior to or during fermentation. Nothing to do with sweetening the resultant wine, it's about potential alcohol. Sometimes used as a vinification technique to promote certain characteristics. Banned in many countries (Italy), strictly controlled where it is permitted.
Must Enrichment
Different from Chaptalization in that beet and/or cane sugar is NOT used. Grape concentrate is made; a clear, viscous syrup of fructose. RCGM- Rectified Concentrated Grape Must.
Treatments: Sulfur
Use of sulfur dioxide in its various forms is an integral part of grape-growing and wine-making today. Its about quantity and timing. Many positive uses:

In the vineyard-Many sulfur-based sprays used to combat mould and mildew, e.g. Bordeaux Mixture. Used to prevent fermentation of grapes during shipping and storage.

In the winery-Protecting juice and wine from oxidation. 1 molicule of sulfur will combine with 2 molecues of oxygen to form SO2.

Antibacterial Properties- Prevents spoilage due to acetobacters. Antioxidant- Inhibits the negative effects of oxygen at many stages of production. Antiseptic- considered essential in maintaining hygienic winery equipment.
Potential Sulfur Negatives
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S)- Formed when sulfur reacts with yeasts during fermentation. Smells like rotten egg gas.

Mercaptans- If H2S is left untreated it will react with other chemicals (most notably ethyl alcohol) to form these potent compounds. Can smell like burnt rubber, rotten game, rancid garlic. The resulting flavour of the wine will generally be astringent.
Yeast Selection: Types
Natural - Cultured - Wild. Saccharomyces Cerevisae. Wild yeasts operate in aerobic conditions. Wine yeasts operate in aanaerobic conditions.
Pretty much standard practice in the New World. Best done prior to or during fermentation. Tartaric acid is most common.
Addition of calcium carbonate or potassium bi-tartrate to neutralize acids. Malolactic conversion.
The Algerian Ducellier system, or autovinificator, is really another form of pumping-over, but needs no external power, harnessing the energy from the fermentation in the form of CO2 pressure to move the juice to the top of the vat. Used in the Upper Douro, where there was no electrical power. Such is the efficiency and simplicity that it is now found in modern winemaking countries such as Australia.
Carbonic Maceration
2 important factors necessary: The use of whole bunches of undamaged grapes and a fermentation vessel that can be filled with CO2.

The fermentation takes place in two distinct stages, the first in a specially prepared closed vat at an elevated temperature, the second in an ordinary vat at normal temperature. The main principle is that the first stage, the true carbonic maceration, take place without the involvement of yeast. The alcohol that is produced during this phase is formed by *intracellular fermentation* inside the grape, using the grapes own enzymes (this is why the grapes must be whole). The biochem reactions cause temp to rise to 30-35 C. This process is allowed to continue for 5-15 days, during which time about 3% alcohol is produced. During the 2nd phase, the more usual extracellular fermentation takes place, using the yeasts from the skins of the grapes.
Fining is done to remove suspended matter. Different substances are used to coagulate with the suspended matter and precipitate. Egg white, Bentonie, Isinglass, ox blood.
Chemical Instability- Tartrates; Casse- oxidic, protein or iron.

Microbiological Instability- Yeasts and bacteria can sometimes cause indesirable reactions in wine. Acetobacters; Rod Bacteria. SO2 is the miracle cure-all! Pasteurization- ouch!
The question of oak. The tighter the grain the better. Size of barrel. Type of oak. Amount of toasting. Legislation governing maturation.
Regional Oak Varieties
Quercus alba:

Fast growing wide-grained white. American Oak- More pungent aromatics; barrel-making techniques contribute to the "coconut" character. Sawn staves-releases more aromatic substances especially vanillin.

Quercus robur and Quercus sessilis- Tighter grained European brown oaks. More, but finer tannins. Staves are split. *Troncais, Allier, Vosges and Nevers are the most well-known of the French forests. These are all from the Quercus sessilis family. These are forest oaks as opposed to solitary trees. Grow straighter trunks and branches start higher. Four times richer in aromatic compounds.
White wines are bottled earlier than reds. Hand bottling. Cold sterile bottling. Hot bottling.
Wine faults
Corkiness; Oxidation; H2S Mercaptans; Brettanomyces; Volatiles Acidity (VA)
Systems of climate classification
The "degree days" classification system, a technical measure that sums temperatures exceeding 50 degrees between April and October, reflects these general differences.

The Köppen climate classification was developed by Wladimir Köppen, a German climatologist, around 1900. It is based on the concept that native vegetation is the best expression of climate, thus climate zone boundaries have been selected with vegetation distribution in mind. It combines average annual and monthly temperatures and precipitation, and the seasonality of precipitation.
the sorting process wherein the bunches of grapes are examined for ripeness and uniformity and any bad
sections, unripe grapes, raisins, rot, or excess stems and leaves are cut out. Most often, this is done on sorting tables
topped with slow moving conveyer belts to feed the clusters past the experienced workers. Mandatory only in CDP AOC.
Moving the wine from one barrel to another, often using a siphon (pumps also may be
used) to get the clear wine off its lees in the old barrel and feed the wine some oxygen through air exposure.
The process of punching down the cap to drown aerobic bacteria and assist the cuvaison process, allowing extraction of color, flavor, and tannin.
"Pumping Over"
The more typically Bordelaise practice of pumping juice from the bottom of the tank and spraying it
over the top of the cap so it extracts color and flavor and tannin as it filters through.
A technique for bubbling a small amount of oxygen into wine in the barrel for gentle oxygenation
without racking the wine off its lees.
A decomposition of dead yeast cells that occurs in wines that are aged sur lie. Winemakers believe that certain wines-like those made with Chardonnay or Sauvignon Blanc grapes-benefit from autolysis because they gain complexity during the process. Autolysis affects sparkling wines as well when they age sur lie.
The term used in Bordeaux to specify the 225-liter (almost 60-gallon) oak barrels that are used for storing and aging wine. It's similar in size to the PIÈCE used in Burgundy.
Arresting fermentation by adding SO2 and filtering, or by the addition of grape spirit to the must. The latter is used in port and vin doux naturel production.
Vin de Paille
French for "straw wine," referring to wines made from grapes that are dried by spreading them out on mats or trays or by hanging them in bunches. The name comes from the original practice of using straw mats during the drying process.These sweet wines come from Alsace and the Jura primarily, as well as the Rhône.
Vin Jaune
Vin jaune (literally yellow wine) is an unusual wine made in the Jura region of France.
Made from late harvest Savagnin grapes. They are fermented slowly and then kept in small old oak casks. Casks are not topped up. Flor grows over the wine, protecting it partially from oxidation. Acquires the typical yellow colour and flavours as it ages for six years and three months. At this point only about 62% of the original wine remains and so, is bottled in 62cl wine bottles called clavelins.
Vin Doux Naturel
Describes fortified wines where grape spirit has been added before completion of fermentation. This action kills the yeast, and the unfermented sugar causes the wine to be sweet. Most VDN white wines are made from Muscat, usually Muscat à Petits Grains or Muscat of Alexandria. AOCs noted for their VDN whites include Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise. The best known VDN red and Rose wines, produced primarily from Grenache, are from the ACs of Banyuls, Maury, Rasteau, and Rivesaltes.
Weissburgunder synonyms
Pinot Blanc, Pinot Bianco
Pinot Gris synonyms
Rulander, Pinot Grigio
Gewurtztraminer synonyms
Traminer Aromatico
Nebbiolo synonyms
Spanna, Chiavennesca
soil type (marl) in Chianti Classico
Governo technique
A Vinification technique used in Tuscany (primarily Chianti) whereby the must from grapes previously set aside to dry and shrivel is added to the already-fermented wine. This causes a secondary fermentation, creating wines that are softer, higher in alcohol, more deeply colored, and, sometimes, slightly Frizzante. Although not practiced much anymore, some producers desirous of a smooth-drinking wine still use this technique. The more common practice, however, is to use a grape concentrate instead of semidried grapes.
Ugni blanc synonyms
Partially fermented grape juice in which fermentation has been stopped by the addition of alcohol. Because only small amounts of the grape sugars have usually been converted to alcohol, mistelle is very sweet. It's used mainly as a base for Aperitifs, particularly Vermouth. Spirit is added much earlier than in VDN production.
Bonne Chauffe
The 2nd distillation which produces Cognac
Spirit of about 30% alcohol produced after 1st distillation (Cognac).
Fine Champagne
Blend of Cognac from Grande & Petite Champagne districts w/ at least half from Grande Champagne.
Black Cognac Fungus
torula compniacensis richon
Tempranillo synonyms
Cencibel, Ull de Llebre, Tinto Fino, Tinto del Pais, Tinta de Toro
Mazuela synonyms
Carinena, Carignan
Mourvedre synonyms
Rendement de Base, Rendement Annuel, Rendement Butoir
-Basic permitted yield
-Annual yield adjustment
-"Yield Stopper" can never be exceeded, normally about 20% above the basic permitted yield.
La Bise
Cool, dry air that blows in, drys vineyards, saves many vintages from early fall rot in Burgundy.
In Burgundy, a simple rental agreement with the tenant paying in cash, after which they are free, but responsible for all expenses.
In Burgundy, a share-cropping agreement. The landlord pays the capital costs (replanting, etc.) and is recompensed by a portion (normally half) of the fruit. The tenant may also go as far as making the wine and selling it (bulk or bottle) on the landlord's behalf.
Chablis soil types
Kimmeridgian is the soil considered suitable for great Chablis (all Chablis Grand Cru are on "K"). It is a sticky mixture of clay and limestone, and contains a high proportion of fossilized oyster shells. Only found in Chablis and in the Bay of Kimmeridge, England. Portlandian soils is a layer found covering the Kimmeridgian in places. It is high in calcium, but with little clay and fossils, and is regarded as not having the same complexity.
Bordeaux mixture
Lime and copper sulfate. Used to fight moisture and fungal disease.
Green Harvesting
Often used in Bordeaux, it is the process of going through the vineyard during the growing season and cutting bunches of grapes off of the vine so that the remaining bunches get all of the nutrients and richness from the plant.
Vin de Presse
Produced after the wine has completed alcoholic fermentation and malolactic conversion. The wine is drawn off its lees into casks and the residue of skin and pips at the bottom of the vat is pressed. The resulting liquid is low in alcohol, very dark and extremely tannic. Often added back to the wine to give extra body, tannins, increase longevity.
Vin de Goutte
The "free run juice" produced by the first racking. leaves behind the lees that result in Vin de Presse.
The aging process, often in oak barrels
French term for the period when grape juice is kept in contact with the skins and seeds during both fermentation and maceration. Critical in the making of red wines, cuvaison allows color, tannins, and aroma to be transferred from the skins and seeds to the juice.
The period of time grape juice spends in contact with the skins and seeds.
The process of pumping the fermenting grape juice over the cap during cuvaison.
The process of siphoning off the clear juice from the sediment that has fallen to the bottom of the container either naturally or with the help of fining agents. During the winemaking process, racking can occur three or four times before the wine is clear. After racking, some wines are also filtered prior to bottling to remove any remaining miniscule particles. Also called soutirage.
The process of allowing white wine must to settle prior to racking off the wine, thereby reducing the need for fining or filtration.
Acts as a catalyst, a substance that promotes a particular chemical reaction, but does not actually take part in it.
The period during which the grape changes its appearance: in black varieties the colour starts to show in the skins, and white grapes take on a more translucent appearance, sometimes with hints of yellow in the colour.
The controlled introduction of a very slow stream of oxygen into wine as it ages in a tank, mirroring the (natural) gentle oxygenation found with barrel ageing. the result is a wine that is smoother and softer, with better integration of the tannins, and yet will still develop in bottle.
The manual punching-down of the cap, helps drown aerobic bacteria and encourage cuvaison.
This winemaking process involved bleeding off a portion of red wine after only a short period of contact of the juice with the grape skins. Because the colour of red wine is derived from pigments in the skins, the juice is only pink not red.
Stirring the lees with a stick to increase flavor extraction.
Vin de Liqueur
A fortified wine which has had its fermentation completely averted by the addition of alcohol, usually in the form of brandy or marc, to the unfermented grape juice. The resulting wine is sweet due to the high amounts of residual sugar and, without benefit of the complexity of flavour that would have come from fermentation, is often dominated by the added spirit. Examples are Pineau des Charentes (Cognac) Floc de Gascogne (Armagnac) and Macvin de Jura.
French term for 'crushing'
Leaf Removal
A particularly pure protein obtained from the bladders of sturgeon and other fish used for fining wines.

Isinglass reacts with the excess tannins in harsh young red wines. Expensive.
Exogyra virgula
Comma-shaped fossil found in Chablis, the Aube, and one of Sancerre's 3 soil types (terres blanches, a weathered Kimmeridgian limestone marl)
AKA 'racking'. The transfer of wine from one container to another, leaving the lees behind.
Saccharomyces bayanus is a special yeast strain that can ferment at high sugar.

Beginning to be utilized in Veneto.
Geneva Double Curtain
-The concept aims to improve grape quality by reducing shade within a dense canopy by dividing the mass of foliage in two.
-Trunk is grown high, with two permanent cordons, each one trained out to run along a supporting wire. Along the cordons are spurs which hang down toward the ground. Particularly useful for vines of high vigor, improving exposure, quality, and yield.
-Ideal for wide-spaced rows of high-yielding grapes.
Cordon Training
Vines have a short trunk. A permanent branch, or cordon, is trained along a wire on one side of the vine. The cordon, which is never pruned away, bears a number of spurs.

Cordons may be unilateral or bilateral. The cordons are trained across a trellis. One significant advantage of this method is its suitability to mechanical pruning (spurs are all at a very similar height along the cordon).
Optimum Wine Fermentation Temps
Range: 10°C-30°C

Whites: 18°C (10°C-17°C)
Reds: 29.4°C
As an oak barrel is charred, a complex group of compounds is created. What are they, and how do they influence the flavor of wine?
Carbohydrate Degradation Products

-Furfurals create a nutty character most noticed with light-toasted barrels.

-Maltol and cyclotene create a caramel-like flavor and are most noticed in heavily-charred barrels. They also act as flavor potentiators, increasing the perception of other flavors.
What compound in oak is responsible for the vanilla flavor in wine? How is it influenced?
Phenolic Aldehydes (best known is vanillin)- Creates other flavors as well, but vanilla is the most obvious.

-Open-air seasoning increases levels.

-Kiln-drying decreases levels.

-Toasting brings compounds to the surface.
What compound in oak is responsible for the coconut-like flavor? How is it influenced?

-Open-air seasoning decreases levels.

-Kiln-drying preserves/concentrates levels.

-Toasting brings lactones to the surface.
What compound in oak creates the allspice or clove-like character found in wine? How is it influenced?
Volatile Phenols:

-Open-air seasoning of staves decreases levels.

-Kiln-drying preserves levels.

-Toasting brings these compounds to the surface.
Vine Training System

Vertically divided training system. Cordon-trained. Always spur pruned. Compatible with mechanical prune and harvest. Divides canopy into two:
Pumping the fermenting juice over the cap during the cuvaison.
What compounds of oak give color and tannin to wine? What do they protect the wine from?
Tannin and Phenolics

They protect the wine from oxidation and reductive aromas.
French term meaning 'bled', for a winemaking technique which results in a rosé wine made by running off ('bleeding') a certain amount of free-run juice from just-crushed, dark-skinned grapes after a short, pre-fermentation maceration.

Increases skin-to-juice ratio on the remaining red wine.
A specific strain of film-forming saccharomyces. Diminishes glycerol and volatile acids. Increases aldehydes and esters. Imparts a distinctive flavor. Very specific requirements for survival. Optimum alcohol level is 15.5%. Must have a low SO2 content and near-absence of fermentable sugars.

Olorosos lack 'flor protection' (flor kills acetobacters), so they are fortified to a higher alcohol percentage to protect the wine from turning to vinegar.
American Rootstocks used in Bordeaux
2 principal categories:

-Depth Filtration (further divided into earth and sheet/pad filtration)

-Surface Filtration, AKA Tangential or Crossflow
Cork Trees
Quercus Suber

Minimum 40 years-old. Harvest once every 9-10 years.
Viral Diseases
Caused by simple organisms. Usually will not kill vine.

-Corky Bark: Looks like Leafroll; usually kills vine.
-Fanleaf Degeneration: Oldest-known virus. Grape bunches are smaller and seedless.
-Leafroll Virus: 50% yield reduction. Downward rolling of leaves.
-Nepoviruses: Group of viruses caused by nematode worms.
Mycroplasma Diseases
Similar to bacteria, but much smaller.

Flavescence Dorée: Spread by leaf hoppers. Branches become like rubber, and berries shrivel.
Fungal Diseases
Caused by Fungi Organisms. Live by feeding off chlorophyll.

-Black Rot: Attacks shoots, leaves, and berries.
-Bunch Rot: Attacks just before harvest.
-Downy Mildew: AKA Peronospera. Leaves fall off. Use Copper Sulfate.
-Grey Rot: Early botrytis-affecting unripe grapes.
-Powdery Mildew: AKA Oidium. Use sulphur and sun exposure.
-Texas Root Rot: SW vs. Rootstock selection.
-Eutypia Dieback: AKA Dead Arm.
Bacterial Diseases
Small organisms.

-Bacteria Blight: Attacks and kills young shoots. Spread by rain and pruning tools.
-Crown Gall: Tumor spread by grafting. Strangles the vine.
-Pierce's Disease: Vines die within 5 years. Sharpshooter.
Champagne (primarily) term.

The settling of solids from the must before fermentation.
French term for lees stirring. Done partially to avoid the development of H2S. Also improves mouthfeel and stability of wines.
AKA 'rack and return'.

Process used to produce softer red wines by reducing harsh tannins from grape seeds. After a cold soak of juice and skins, the juice is drawn off into a separate tank, allowing the cap to fall to the bottom and drain. During this time, many seeds are loosened and filtered out.

Afterwards, juice is pumped back into the first tank, remixing with the now-seedless cap.
Name 5 types of vine pests
-Leaf Hoppers
Cordon de Royat
Vine training system utilized in Burgundy and Champagne.
-It is a unilateral cordon grown close to the ground with (usually) 4 spur-pruned buds for Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
-Usually 8 spur-pruned buds for Gamay.
What is a fuder? What is a stück?
Fuder is a 1000 liter barrel used mostly in the Mosel region. A stück is 1200 liters and is found mostly in the Rheingau.
What is the name and size of the barrel classically used in Chablis?
Feuillette. Between 114 and 132 liters.