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30 Cards in this Set

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What "Green Operations" are available?
Shoot thinning

Shoot positioning

Shoot Topping

Hedging

Green thinning

Leaf Pulling
What are ways to do shoot thinning?
select desired shoot number
relieve congestion
Types of hedging.
vertical
horizontal
Shoot topping
promotes lateral growth
Green thinning
Cluster management
Leaf thinning
Add light to the fruit zone
What is pruning?
Removal of seasonal growth for:
* Removing a number of buds
* Prepare the vine for the next season's growth
Three families of pruning:
cane
spur
minimal
Two vehicles for staging buds.
cane
spur
Cane pruning characteristics
leaves fertile buds from the mid-section
assures the number of buds
hard to assure number of shoots
reduces carbohydrate reserve (no cordon)
Characteristics of spur pruning.
Even growth-carb reserves stored in cordon

Spurs can die leaving gaps

Simple-easy to do and teach
What is canopy management?
Management of the growing leaves to:
-control vigor
-optimize fruit quality.
3 trellis configurations
Single vertical plane
Double vertical plane
Non vertical
Gobolet (head trained)
Shoots left untrained
Hard to mechanize
Can lead to vigor or congestion at the head
Characteristics of Cordon training
Permanent vertical or horizontal
Vehicle for GDC, Lyre, VSP
Cordons can be used with canes such as Sylvoz
Training Method Differences
See slide 7 in Week 7 Part 2
Minimal Pruning
-spur training
-leaves all buds at all nodes - balances in time
-short shoots
-small clusters
-small berries
-good light exposure
-good mechanization
Geneva Double Curtain
-spur training
-reducing shade within a dense canopy
-cordons trained out perpendicular
-spurs produce fruiting canes that hang
-easily mechanized
-deep fertile soils
-increased protection from frost
-medium to high vigor
Lyre
-spur training
-like GDC but not as high and canes grow upward
-medium to high vigor
Scott Henry
-spur & cane training
-double guyot style
-Four canes from the cordon
-good for mechanical harvesting
-improve fruit quality and yield from over-vigorous vines
Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) Trellis
-cane & spur training
-fruiting canes are trained upwards from the trunk
-canes may be trimmed off at the top
-highly mechanizable
-low vigor
Guyot
-cane & spur training
-easy to learn
-one cane preserved each year, for the generation of next years many fruiting canes
-one spur, which is for the generation of the replacement cane
Double Guyot
-cane & spur training
two canes and two spurs, the canes being trained in opposite directions along wires.
What is canopy management?
Managing growth through 
selection of variety and rootstock
Training and trellising techniques. 
 Shoot thinning
permits choosing desired number of shoots

reduces congestion in the canopy
 Sucker thinning
-shoots growing off the zone below the rootstock graft or along the scion 
trunk tend only to steal energy from the vine–removal focuses growth in 
desired areas
‐ an excess of suckers can indicate imbalance‐too few buds/shoots
Hedging
topping the growing apexes
hedging back the bushy leaves on a vine
Shoot positioning
- stages the canopy to take advantage of available light
- Fruit zone light environment and congestion can be impacted 
Green thinning
- select appropriate number of clusters per shoot
- later pass at veraison to remove clusters that failed to color properly
Leaf pulling
- assist in modifying the fruit zone light or air microclimate.
- reduce disease pressure
- reduce the accumulated green flavored pyrazines
- encourage the accumulation of some flavor compounds