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36 Cards in this Set

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What are the main elements of terroir?
Climate
Soil
Grape Variety
Vintage and Wine Making
Four important factors influencing terroir in viticulture.
water status and nitrogen fertility

vine physiology and adaption to different environments

human factors

ports and population centers
* Viticulture is mostly concerned with what factors?
climate - temp, precip, humidity

soils - fertility & water holding capacity

site - understanding unique characteristics
* What are the main organs of a vine?
root
shoots
leaves
fruit
* What happens when roots begin to grow?
soil warms to 50 F

Enzymes break down starches into sugars

Sugars create a gradient that causes water to flow into the plant
Define osmosis.
The movement of water from one side of a semi-permeable membrane to another. An osmotic gradient is created when one side of a membrane has a higher concentration of a solute than the other.
What is the difference between symplastic and apoplastic pathways?
Symplastic Movement - Movement of water and solutes through the continuous connection of cytoplasm (though plasmodesmata)


Apoplastic Movement - Movement of water and solutes through the cell walls and the intercellular spaces
* Three types of roots.
Frame
Permanent
Fibrous or Absorbing
* What are Frame roots?
6 - 100 mm wide existing about 35 mm below the surface; fully established after 3 years
* What are permanent roots?
2 - 6 mm these grow out of the Frame roots and grow horizontally or downward
* Fibrous Roots?
smallest roots - responsible for absorbing water

large percentage of the root mass

20 - 50 cm depth
Rooting zone.
80% of the root mass in the 20 - 50 cm range
Xylem and Phloem
Xylem - water transport through root pressure and transpirational pull through dead cells

Phloem - transport of sap via living cells
Where does shoot growth begin?
Begins in the bud with the growth of the apical meristem
* Two types of buds.
Prompt - grows in the same season as it is formed. grows into a lateral shoot.

Latent - on the primary shoot. it sponsors growth the following year. there can be secondary and tertiary buds within.
When does the dormant bud begin the grow?
In the spring.

200 hours below 50 F
* Trace bud development.
Initiation and differentiation of inflorescences. (Season 1 Spring/Summer - Induction and initiation, Fruit Set, Veraison)

Bud dormancy (Season 1 Summer/Fall - Harvest)

Inflorescence development and flower maturation (Season 2 Winter/Spring - Bud Burst,

Flowering (Season 2 Spring)

Berry formation (Season 2 Summer - Veraison)

Berry ripening(Season 2 Summer/Fall - Harvest)
What hormone does the apex produce?
Auxin - stimulates growth towards light and inhibits later bud growth.
What hormone do the roots produce?
Abscisic Acid - at times of water stress. Slows/stops shoot growth and and reduce stomatal conductance.
* How do shoots express apical dominance?
Shoot tip hormonally blocks the growth of laterals.
How do laterals grow if the distal apex is intact?
Basally, away from the apex.
Grapevine shoots express acrotony or growth at the top of the plant most at what time.
If the growing apex is removed.
Name the major shoot growth principles.
End Point
Prunk Proximity
Highest Point
Root to Shoot
What is the end point principle?
Shoots at the end of a cane are more vigorous.
End buds have preferential growth.
What is the trunk proximity principle?
Shoots close to the trunk have a growth advantage.
Grow from a replacement spur or from the "head" of the vine.
Which type of pruning promotes the most even growth?
Spur pruning.
What is the highest point principle?
Shoots originating from buds at the highest point may have an advantage.
Likely influenced by gravity-offers a method for promoting more even growth - create an apex.
What is the Root to Shoot principle?
Ratio of root mass to shoot mass tends to stay the same.
Heavily pruned plants with large root masses will be more vigorous.
Small rooted plants with a large number of buds have weak shoot growth.
Vines pruned according to their vigor tend to be more balanced.
* Name the goals of shoot growth.
Even growth across the vine.
Enough vigor to supply canopy architecture.
Limited lateral growth.
Desired fruit composition.
In cool climates which buds grow under the most favorable conditions?
Buds 4 - 5 nodes away from the base of the cane.
Shoot growth principles apply to what pruning method?
Cane pruning.
What is a vine's ability to ripen fruit dependent on?
The balance between vegetative growth and fruit development.
What plant organs produce sugars?
Leaves.
What is the effect of appropriate levels of hydric stress?
fruit growth
carbon assimilation
limit vigorous vegetative growth
What does good weather promote?
Bud fertility.
* What is the goal of shoot growth?
Balanced growth.