Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

388 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an appelation? What does it indicate?
A geogrpahic name given to a wine. It indicates the origin of the grapes used to make the wine.
Why are appelations used?
To identify the better wines in most wine productin countries. In some countries, the use of the names is strictly controlled by law while in others it is imply an established practice. The geographic name may be used in addition to a varietal designation, or it can be used as the primary identifier of the wine.
What is a controlled appellation of origin?
A special kind. A geogrpahic name that indicates not only the origin of the grapes, but also the grape varieties, how they were grown and how the wine was made. Can be used ONLY if the wine was made in accordance w/ all of these production regulations.
What are some of the most imporatant production standards in Germany?
grape yield: cannot exxceed a maximum specified for each appellation.
sugar concentration in grapes: must exceed a min. specified for each appellation.
Wine that bear an appelation of orign are subject to..
evaluation by at taste panel to insure that they are typical of the region.
Why was the European appelation system developed?
to protect the repuation of place names that have long been used to identify wines traditionally produced in these places. The wine will always indicate the same type of quality. Also gives the producers within the region exclusivity in the marketplace. Cabernet Sauvignon can be produced in many places, but wine only the wine producers in Bordeaux can make Bordeaux.
Why is winemaking in France so important?
Winemaking in France has served as the model for wine production in many other countries.
In France, what are wines called if they are controlled by an appellation of orgin?
AOC wines (Appelation d'Origine Controlee)
How are AOC wines identified?
Identified on the label by the words "appellation controlee" along w/ a geographic name.
What percent of French wine is AOC wine?
Where is sugar enrichment legal? Illegal? (In France)
Legal for northern part of France. Illegal in southern regions.
Tell me about non-AOC wines.
May still be excellent wines. More and more varietally labeled wine is being produced in Southern France in the vin de pays (regional wine). This wine carries a varietal designation and the name of the region. More than half of the wine produced in France is in the lowest category, vin de table.
How can the AOC system be described?
Hierarchical. Consists of a nested series of geographic areas, from large regions w/ relatively lenient requirements to smaller regegions contained within them that have more stringent requirements. The smaller, more specific areas are more prestigious and command a higher price. A producer is NOT required to use the msot sepcific appelation for which the wine qualifies. May declassify.
What kind of names do most parts of France use?
regional, sub regional and village names, but some regions use more specific names, including single vineyard names in Burgundy and a few other places and chateau names in Bordeaux.
What is the heart of Burgundy?
Cote d'Or. Slope of gold.
What kind of wines are produced in Burgundy?
Primarily 100% varietal wines (produced from a single grape variety). Red made from Pinot Noir. White wines made from Chardonnay.
What are the differences in among wines attributed to in Burgundy?
Soil differences.
What size are Burgundy vineyards? Why is this?
Rather small. This is a consequence of the breakup of large land holdings into smaller parcels after the French Revolution and the subsequent division of these parcels into even smaller parcels as land was divided among children according to the old inheritance laws.
How many owners does each vineyard typically have (in Burgundy)
Several owners. Each owner owns and farms just a few rows within the vineayrd. Because of this, the wines from different owners in a vineyard can differ significantly.
What is the typical level of Alcohol for Burgundy wines? Why is this?
Typically high alcohol (around 13%). Burgundy is relatively cool and the grapes do not accumulate much natural sugar. Sugar is often added.
Because pinot noir is not an intensely pigmented grape, Burgundy wines are..
lower in color than some othe red wines. Also less tannic than Bordeaux reds.
What do Burgundy bottles have?
Sloping shoulders.
How many appellations does Burgundy have?
Over 100.
What complications does Burgundy present?
has many individual vineyard appellations.
What fraction of Burgundy appellations is regional? Village?
2/3 and 1/3
What percent of Burgundy is vineyard appellations?
1%. This carries the most famous and expensive Burgundies.
What are the two types of vineyard appellations (in France)?
premier cru and grand cru;
first growth and great growth
What are grand cru vineyards considered?
The very best wines.
Why are village and vineyard names confusing (for France)?
Many of the villages in which a famous vineyard is a located have added the name of the vineyard to the village name.
How do you identify wines that are made from premier cru vineyards?
village name plus the vineyard name.
How are wines identified if they are made from grand cru vineyards?
vineyard name alone.
What is Beaujolais known for?
South of Burgundy. Known for its light, fruity red wines made from the variety Gamay noir.
What is usually used to make Beaujolais Nouveau? When are they released?
Carbonic maceration. Released on the third Thursday in November when they have just finished fermenting.
Where is Gamay Beaujolais produced? How is this term used?
California. Used as a semi generic term for light fruity red wine produced from either Pinot noir or from a variety called Napa gamay.
What wine does Chablis produce?
Produces only white wine from Chardonnay. Chablis is an area north of Burgundy. It is relatively cool and has more acidic wines.
What are the highlights of the Chablis region?
Very cool area and the wines are very high in acid. Also has premier cru and grand cru vineyard appellations.
Does Bordeaux necessitate chapitalization?
Yes. Because the region is next to the Atlantic Ocean, the winters are not as severe as Burgundy but the summers can be cool and wet. The grapes do not always ripen fully.
Why are vineyards in Bordeaux bigger than Burgundy?
Land was not confiscated and subdivided after the French Revolution. Also, inheritance customs dictated that land went to the oldest son, so parcels were not split up.
What 3 main varieities are red Bordeaux wines made from?
Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet franc
What are white Bordeaux wines made from?
Sauvignon blanc and Semillon.
What are red Bordeaux wines like?
Typically much darker and more tannic than Burgundies because the grape varieites used are higher in pigment and tannin than Pinot noir.
What alcohol level are Red Bordeaux wines?
Typically somewhat around 11% (higher alcohol not needed to facilitate color and tannin extraction).
What do Bordeaux bottles have?
Pronounced shoulders.
Are there vineyard appelations in Bordeaux?
How far do Bordeaux appelation levels go?
Village level.
What are the two important sub regions in Bordeaux?
Medoc and haut-medoc
How are Bordeaux wines primarily identified?
by Chateau and only secondarily by village or regional appellation.
Tell me about the Haut Medoc region?
Sub region northwest of the city of Bordeaux, along the south bank of Gironde river. Home to the most important of the Bordeaux chateaux.
What is the most specific wine name used in Bordeaux?
The chateau name, but it is not technically part of the AOC system.
What does the Medoc region produce?
mainly red wines in which Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant variety with lesser amounts of Merlot, Cabernet franc, and Petit Verdo
What is Saint Emilion?
A village northeast of the city of Bordeaux in which Merlot and cabernet franc predominate in the wines. (Cabernet franc is a red wine grape)
What is the main variety in Pomerol?
What wine does Chateau Petrus produce?
What are Graves and Sauternes known for?
for their white wines.
What dominates in the Graves sub region?
Sauvignon blanc in a blend with Semillon.
What is the village appelation of Sauternes famous for?
Sweet white wines made from very ripe gapes that are infected with botrytis. Semillon predominates in a blend w/ sauvignon blanc.
Which wineries are the "first growths?"
(Called premier grand crus classe)
Chateau Latour
Caheau Lafite rothschild
Chateau margau
chateau mouton rothschild
chateau haut brion
What doe chateaux of the second through fifth growths usually indicate?
only that they are grand crus classe (great classifed growths).
What are the northern rhone vineayards like?
steep, overlooking the river and the weather is relatively cool.
What are the south rhone vineyards like?
Can get quite hot.
What are the main wines in the northern rhone region?
mainly red wines. Single varieties predominate with the red wines being made from Syrah and the white wines from Viognier.
How is most of the wine identifed in the northern Rhone region?
by village appelations;
among the best known are Hermitage and Cote Rotie.
What is syrah like?
relatively dark and tannic variet and its wines are often described as having a wild or gamy flavor.
What is the southern rhone region like?
flatter, warmer area. Most of the wines produced in the southern rhone carry the regional cotes du Rhone appelation.
What are southern rhone wines like?
typically blends of several varieties including grenache, syrah, mourvedre, and others.
Who are the Rhone Rangers?
There is an increasing interest in Rhone style wines in California and the proponents of this movement call themselves the Rhone rangers.
What type of wine does Randall Grahm produce?
Le Cigare volant: inspired by a law passed in Chateauneuf du Pape in 1954 which prohibted flying saucers from landing in the village and disturbing the vineyards.
How would you describe the Loire valley?
extensive, diverse wine area, stretching all the way from the cool coastal area at the mout of th river to far inland.
What important variet is part of the inland part of the Loire valley?
Sauvignon blanc.
What is the major variet in the central part of Loire
Chenin blanc is the major white wine variety and some red wines are made from cabernet farnc.
what is the main variety at the mouth of the Loire?
melon (called Muscadet) in California.
What three varieties are authorized for the region Champagne?
Chardonnay, pinot noir, and meunier ( a red grape).
What is Meunier like?
The hardiest of the tree and is grown in the coldest parts of Champagne.
What is Champagne typically like?
typically blended from different varieties, vineyards and years. This enables the frequent differences in yield and quality from vineyard to vineyard or year to year to be evend out.
What is the appelation for sparkling wine in Champagne?
Champagne AOC.
What varieties are from the Alscace region?
Gewurrztraminer, pinot blanc, riesling. Alsace wines are usually varietally labeled (of german resemblance).
Where is most of the ordinary wine produced in France?
Provence, the midi, and languedoc roussillon.
What is the area of Provence, the midi, and languedoc-roussillon traditionally known for?
the mediocrity of its wines based on varities like Carignane, Aramon, and Alicante bouschet.
What has happened in recent years to the Provence, the midi, and languedoc roussillon area?
area has been the subject of a big effort to improve its wines. Growers are being encuouraged to palnt better varieties like syrah, cabernet sauvignon and merlot. Some very fine wines are now coming out of southern france.
Italy is the largest exporter of wines to the United States in terms of..
volume (france is the leader in terms of value).
What is the Italian Appellation system referred to as?
DOC (Denominazione di Orgine Controllata).
What is a DOC (Italy)?
A name given to a wine from a specific geographic region that is made from specified grape varities and by specified methods.
Why is the Italian appelation subject to criticism?
The grape varieties and production controls that were written into law insured that the wines would be typical of each region, but not necessarily of high quality. Unlike the French, the italians were exactly market oriented at the time, so quality wasn't as important.
What is the result of the criticism of the Italian appelation?
Many progressive producers, feeling constrained by laws taht require them to make what they consider to be inferior wine, ahve chosen to make wines that do not conform to law and must thus be labeled vino da tavola (table wine).
What was one attempt to improve the Italian system?
The development of DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) reserved for wines of particular distinction.
What is a large difference between French and Italian appellations?
The Italian appellations are not hierarchical.
What happens to wines taht fail to meet DOCG standards?
They are declassifed to vino da tavola.
What are the existing appellations like in Italy?
Generally small and there are no regional appellations.
What are some of the most prestigious ane expensive wine regions in Italy?
Piedmon and Tuscany.
Where do the low priced Italian wines sold in the US come from?
Veneto and Emilia-Romagna.
What is Piedmont like?
Relatively cool, hilly region in northwestern Italy.
What is Piedmon best known for?
Two DOCG red wines, Barolo and Barbaresco.
What is Barolo and Barbaresco named for? What are they made from? What are the requirements?
Named for villages located only a few miles from each other. Both wines are relatively tannic and made entirely from the Nebbiolo grape variety. Both are required to be aged in wood. Barolo is aged longer and is usually the darker, more tannic wine.
What is Barbera?
a lighter DOC red wine made in Piedmon, named after a grape variety rather than a place.
Is Barbera considered inferior to Nebbiolo?
Yes. Barbera wines are always less expensive than Barolo and Barbarescos.
Where do the best Barbera wines come from?
What is Asti?
A sparkling white DOCG wine made of the town of Asti from Moscato grapes (called Muscat blanc in France and Cali).
What is Tuscany like?
A warmer hilly region around Florence and Siena.
What is Chianti? Where does it come from?
It is a famous DOCG red wine based on the variety Sangiovese that is typically lighter and less tannic than Barolo and Barbaresco. Comes from Tuscany.
Who is the name Chianti Classico given to?
Name given to wines produced in the central part of the Chianti appellations, considered the traditional heartland of Chianti.
Who do most Chianti classico producers belong to?
A consortium and identify themselves by a black rooster on the neck of the bottle.
Initially, Chianti had to be a blend...
primarily of Sangiovese with prescribed proportions of a second red variety and two white varieties. This was a good example of how Italian wine regulations wrote into law practices taht were traditional, but not necessarily desirable.
What are super-tuscans?
Some progressive winemakers in the Chianti region considered this blend to make inferior wine and refused to comply with DOC law. They redued or eliminated the white grapes completely, used Cabernet Sauvignon as the second red variety, and sometimes made 100% Sangivoese wines.
The climate and topography of Tuscan is quite similar to...
that of the coastal valleys of California.
What is Veneto like?
Generally much flatter than Piedmont or Tuscany. Must of the vineyard area is on alluvial plaains with deep soils and yields are relatively high. A popular wine from this region is Soave, a white wine.
Even though Spain has the most vineyard area than any other country, why is its overall production disproportionately low?
Vineyards are low yielding due to water shortage and disease.
Spain adopted their appellation system based on what country?
Why have Spain's appellations not been highly regarded?
Because like Italy, their regulations simply codified traditional practices that resulted in ordinary wine.
How are spanish appellations abreviated?
DO: Denominacion de Origen, but Spain has seen the need to establish a higher category. This is Denominacion de Origen Calificada (DOCa).
What is the DOCa used for?
For particularly distinguished wines.
What is Spain's most famous premium wine areas?
Rioja. The climate is relatively cool and wet and is influenced mre by the Atlantic cocean than by the Mediterranean.
What kind of wines are Rioja wines?
The wiens are primarily oak aged red wines produced from a blend taht is dominated by the variety Tempranillo w/ a small percentage of Garnacha.
The winestyle of Rioja has been largely influenced by which country?
France; French winemakers settled in the area after phylloxera drove them from France.
What is Spain's most progressive wine region?
Penedes. Wine producers in this area have experimented w/ French varieties and with new grape growing and winemaking techniques. The Penedes DO authorities are quite liberal in allowing producers to try new things while continuing to use the appellation
What kind of wines does Penedes produce?
The wines of Penedes are both red and white and use both Spanish and French varieites.
What major red grapes come from Penedes?
Monastrell, Garnacha and Tempranillo as well as French varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot.
What are some important white grapes in Penedes?
Viura, parellada and xarello as well as Chardonnay and Riesling.
Where is most Cava made?
Penedes region.
What is cava?
A very unusual appellation in that it consists of several separate geographically demacracted areas, not all of whic are contiguous or even close together.
What is Cava generally made with?
With Spanish varieties Viura, Parellada and Xarello. French varities of Chardonnay and pinot noir is also allowed.
Who are the better known Cava producers?
Freixenet and Codorniu.
What is produced in Jerez?
This hot dry region in Southern Spain is where sherry is produced.
How long has sherry been produced in Jerez. How was the style determined?
Made since the mIddle ages. Style was largely determined by the British market and the british companies that were established in the area.
What is the main variety used in sherry?
A white grape called Palomino.
What is sherry? How is it made?
A fortified white wine. First a base wine is made by fermenting must to dryness. The base wine is then fortified to about 15% alcohol w/ brandy. It is left in an incompletely filled barrel for 1 to 3 years. The barrel is evaluated from time to time for flor yeast
What is flor yeast?
a form of yeast that grows on the surface of wine. The exposure of the flor yeast to the air allows the sherry to have specific oxidized flavors which are desirable.
What happens if barrels dont' develop any flor?
Foritified further to 18% alcohol and aged in a warm bodega to accelerate oxidantion. They will become oloroso sherry.
What happens to barrels that do develop flor?
Kept for fino sherry and not fortified to 18% after blending.
How is sherry of different ages blended?
By the solera system, a system of franctional blending.
What is the solera system?
Each year, some wien from the oldest barrels is removed for bottling. This is replaced by wine from barrels a year younger wihich is replaced by wines a year younger and so on. The wine in the oldest barrels is thus a mixture of different ages, but the average age of the oldest barrels is always the same and year to year variations are obliterated.
Where is most Portugal wine produced/
Southern part of the country.
Where are the best Portuguese wines made?
Nortern part of the country.
Besides Port, what are some of the best known Portuguese wines?
Carbonated rose wines such as Mateus and Lancer's.
What are Portuguese appellations called?
DOC: Denominacao de Origem Controladad.
The steep banks of the douro river are the home of what wine?
What is Port?
A sweet fortified red wine named after the city of Oporto.
Who influenced Port?
Like sherry, port was shaped by the demands of the British market and the British companies that were located in the area.
What is Port made from?
A blend of many varieties (48 are allowed). The best is Touriga nacional.
Unlike sherry, port is..
Always sweet.
Why is port sweet?
The result of arrested fermentaion. The fermentation is stopped when the sugar concentration is still 9 - 12% by adding alcohol.
What must happen due to the short fermentation time (to Port)
Pumping over must be virtually continuous to maximize color extraction in the time available.
Where is port shipped?
To Vila Nova di Gaia. Here it is aged, blended, and bottled.
What is standard port called?
Ruby port.
How long is ruby port aged?
3 - 4 years and then bottled.
What is vintage port?
It is wine from the best years. Aged in wood for 2 years and then bottle aged fo serveral years further. Vingate port is from a single year only.
What is tawny port?
Aged in wood for alonger time than others. Usually lighter colored than ruby or vintage port.
What does Vinhos Verdes translate to? What kind of wines does this region produce?
Translated to green wines. Very acid wines produced in the Minho, the cool, wet region north of the city of Oporto in the northwestern corner of Portugal.
What happens to the wines in Vinhos Verdes?
Typipcally overcorpped so they do not mature fully and are high in acid and low in sguar.
What is Madeira?
A fortified wine produced on the Portuguese island of the same name.
Where was Madeira orginally shipped?
to the east indies in the holds of ships where it was subject to periods of heating and cooling.
What happens to Madeira today?
heated either artifically or in ovens or stored in attics that have natural temperature swings.
What varities must Madeira be produced from?
At one time, Madeira wines were produced largely from hybrid varieties. They are now required to be produced from specified varieties (mostly white) Vitis Vinifera.
What is the northenr limit of viticulture?
German grapes and wines are of what kind?
Most of the grapes and wines are white because most red varieties need more heat to ripen than is available in Germany.
Are German wines acidic? How do they taste?
Becaues of the cool climate in which the grapes grow, German wine is high in acidity giving it a very tart taste.
Where does the sweetness in German wines comes from (the more expensive wines)?
The sweetness comes from residual grape sugar either as a result of deliberately arrested fermentaion or from grapes thatw ere so high in sugar that the fermentation stopped naturally before all teh sugar was fermented.
In less expensive German wines, where does the sweetness come from?
From the addition of sussreserve, a sterile juice or juice concentrate.
What is special about Germany wine identification?
The land is considered neutral.
What quality categories are German wines based on? Why is this?
Quality categories of wine are based on the sugar concentration at harvest. Germany is much colder and it is difficult to get grapes fully ripe.
What is the ideal location in Germany?
South facgin slope along a river because the water in the river ats to moderate temeprature.
What is Germany famous for?
Its Riesling wines.
what is the most prevalent grape variety in Germany?
Although Riesling is clearly the famous grape, the most prevalent is Muller-Thurgau.
How are german wines and French wines different?
Location doesn't matter in Germany. Wine from any designated wine region can potentially achieve the highest quality.
What are the most important quality categories in Germany?
QmP (quality wine w/ a special attribute)
QbA (Quality wine from a specified region.
Describe QbA wines
Lower of the two categories.
Minimum sugar level is required fro the grapes, but chaptalization is allowed in order to raise the potential alcohol.
What is Liebfraumilch
A blended wine that constitutes about 1/3 of German wine exports.
Describe QmP wines
Highest category. May not be chaptalized. Minimum sugar level required for the grapes is around 17 brix.
What re the QmP sub categories. What are the min. sugar levels for each?
Kabinett: 17
Spatlese: 19
Auslese: 21
Beerenauslese: 28
Trockenbeerenauslese: 39
How is high sugar achived in the Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese categories?
Selecting individual berries that are extremly ripe or infected w/ botrytis.
Why does the proportion of German harvest that can qualify for QmP status vary tremendously?
Because of the weather. In warm years, as much as 89% of the wine could be QmP. In a very cool year, only 5% might qualify.
Is it always possible to know whether a German wine is sweet or dry?
No. the sugar category is indicated on the label, but it is not always possible to know.
What is a dry German wine called?
What is a slightly sweet German wine called?
What does each bottle of QbA or QmP cary?
The name of one of the 13 quality wine regions of Germany. The bottle may also have the name of the town and could also carry a vineyard name.
What are Germany's largest wine regions?
Rheinhessen and Rheinpfalz. These are not assoicated w/ germany's fine wines.
What is the most common wine variety in Rheinhesen and Rheinpfals regions?
Muller-Thurgau and several newer cold tolerant varieties.
What are Rheinhesen and Rheinpfals regions home too?
Liebfraumilch and blue nun.
What regions produce many fine wines in Germany?
Rheingau and Mosel-saar-ruwer. Riesling is the predominant variety here. Vineyards are steep and prohibit mechanization (unlike Rheinhesen and Rheinpfals regions)
Who introduced wine production to the "new" wine regions?
European immigrants, who brouth with them everything they could that was an important part of their culture.
How are the new world wine regions different from Europe? What is the result of this?
There is no indigenous wine tradition. As a result, the new wine regions do not have local wines w/ strong regional identities.
For the most part, how are the wines of the new regions labeled?
They are varietally labeled. The wines are not identified primarily by their geogrpahic origin, although the concept of geogrpaphic identity is growing in these countries.
What did the US (and a number of other countries) do in relation to South Africa?
Placed an embargo on South African products as an expression of disapproval of the apartheid policy.
What is domestic demand for wine like in South Africa? What is the result of this?
Domestic wine consumption is relatively low and South Africa has long depended heavily on export demand.
What have strained trade relations done to South Africa's wine market?
Have hurt the export market at various times throughout its history and production often greatly exceeded demand.
What did the need to stabilize the wine industry lead to (in South Africa)?
the creation of the KWV, a semi governmental cooperative organization that controls wine production.
What is the KWV? What does it do?
It is a semi governmental cooperative organization that controls wine production. It sets wine prices, determines how much surplus wine will be removed from the market (to be used for juice concentrate or distillation), provides technical support to producers and promotes exports.
Many excellent wines are produced in South Africa by..?
Small estates.
What used to be the major varieties in south Africa?
Steen, Palomino, Cinsaut.
Steen is the South African name for..
Chenin blanc.
While Steen Palomino, and Cinsaut remain important varieties in South Africa, the trend today is toward..
classic French varities like Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Chardonnay, and sauvignon blanc.
What is an important variety that was created in South Africa?
Pinotage. It is the result of a cross between pinot noir and hermitage
What is Pintage a cross of?
The result of a cross between pinot noir and hermitage (the old South African name for the French variety Cinsaut)
Hermitage is the old South African name for..
The french variety Cinsaut.
What does South Africa's appellation system include?
13 wine regions or Wine of Origin (WO) areas.
What is not specified on a South African appellation (unlike Europe)?
grape varieties, minimum sugar and maximum yields.
What does the WO on a wine label indicate?
only geographic origin, not wine type.
where are the main wine producing areas located in South Africa?
Right at the southern tip of the country, in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope.
Where are the best wines produced in South Africa?
In the cooler coastal areas
What are the warmer inland regions of South Africa used for?
grapes for juice concentrate and distilling wine.
What are the best known districts in South Africa?
Constantia, Steelebosch, and Paarl
What is Constantia? Where is it located?
very cool area located near the tip of the Cape. Known for its fine white wines.
What is Stellenbosch?
An area of fine red and white wines and a large concentration of wine estates.
what is considered the heart of South Africa's wine country?
What is Stellenbosch home to?
the University of Stellenbosch's School of Viticulture and Enology. Also the home to Nietvoorbij, the National Insititute for Viticulture and Enology.
What is Paarl like?
Is similar to Stellenbosch and is also the home to many fine wine estates.
Who introduced wine and wine grapes to South America?
European colonists
What are the common grapes in Chile?
What is the common grape variety in Argentina?
Criolla (same as Mission in California)
Who produces arguably the best wine in South America?
Where is premium wine production centered in Chile?
Central part of the country, around Santiago.
The climate and topography of Chile is similar to..
What is pisco?
A type of brandy that is Chile’s national beverage.
Where is pisco grown?
Hotter, northern regions of Chile.
In Chile, what are the demarcated wine regions called?
Regiones Vitivinicolas (RV).
What are the best RV?
Maipo (around Santiago), Rapel, and Maule
In Chile, what is controlled? What is not specified?
Maximum grape yields and minimum alcoholic strength are controlled. Grape varieties are not specified.
Is chaptalization permitted in Chile?
Does Chile have phylloxera?
How has Chile prevented phylloxera from invading its vineyards?
Strict quarantine system subjects all imported vines to rigorous standards to prevent the introduction of phylloxera and other foreign pests and diseases.
What varieties predominate in Chile?
French varieties, particularly those of Bordeaux.
What are the most important French varieties that predominate in Chile?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc, and Chardonnay.
Much of what was once thought to be Merlot is now known to be… (Chile)
Old Bordeaux variety Carmenere.
How are Chilean wines typically labeled?
Typically varietally labeled.
What is one of the major destinations of Chilean wine?
The US.
Where is most Argentina wine consumed?
What are Argentina’s main grape varieties?
Include some French classics (Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah), but also Italian (nebbiolo, Barbera) and Spanish (tempranillo).
What is the most common grape variety in Argentina?
Criolla, the mission grape.
Where are most of Argentina’s wine grapes grown?
Around Mendoza (70% of the country’s vineyard area).
What cooler areas to the south are becoming known for Argentina’s excellent wines?
Rio Negro, Neuquen
Is chaptilization permitted in Argentina?
Describe Argentina’s appellation system?
There is none. It is being developed, but for now control of wine origin and varietal composition is weak.
Australian wine styles are quite similar to…
Those of California wines
How are Australian wines labeled?
Varietally labeled and made mostly from classic French varieties.
What are the most important wines of Australia?
Shiraz (Australian for Syrah), Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Riesling, Semillon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc.
What Australian varieties are blended together?
Shiraz and cabernet sauvignon. Also Chardonnay and Semillon.
What is Australia’s appellation system like?
Australia has only recently decided to establish a national appellation system for wine.
Where do most of the best Australian wines come from?
Cool regions near the coast. Some very good wines, however, are produced in the warmer regions.
Where is the Hunter Valley? What is it famous for?
North of Sydney. Famous for Shiraz and Semillon. Often called Hunter Valley Riesling.
What is Mudgee known for?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Shiraz, Chardonnay, Semillon, and blends thereof.
What are Great Western and Yarra Valley known for?
It’s a very cool area near Melbourne known for their sparkling wines. Also make great still wines.
Barossa Valley is the home to…
Australia’s most famous and expensive wine, Penfold’s Grange (primarily Shiraz).
What is Coonawarra known for?
Very cool area in South Australia known for outstanding cabernets.
Where is the Margaret River?
On the coast south of Perth in Western Australia.
What are the Margaret River’s main varieties?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Semillon, Sauvignon blanc, Shiraz and Pinot noir (has its own appellation system.
What did New Zealand use to produce?
Mostly Muller Thurgau, in a German semi sweet style, but now this is declining.
What premium wines are increasing in New Zealand?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc.
What are the two largest areas where grapes are grown in New Zealand?
Poverty Bay and Hawkes Bay.
Poverty Bay is mainly…
A white wine area (Chardonnay, Gewurztraminer)
Hawkes Bay is..
Developing a rep. for good Cabernet Sauvignon
What does Martinborough produce?
Some excellent pinot noirs.
Marlborough is also attracting considerable attention from…?
Sauvignon blanc (cloudy bay is best)
What is Uruguay’s focus?
Domestic focus on table wine.
What is Uruguay’s main variety?
Tannat (red grape: lots of tannin. Can be used to make mediocre price).
What is Tannat like?
Red grape. Lots of tannin. Can be used to make mediocre wine.
The US is a major wine producer. Who does it rank behind in volume? Who is it just ahead of?
Ranks in volume just behind France, Italy and Spain. Just ahead of Argentina.
90% of the wine produced in the US comes from..
California. Some wine is produced in 40 states though.
What is the US wine appellation called?
American Viticultural Area (AVA)
How many AVAs are there in the US? How many are in California?
About 140 in the US. 80 in California.
What do AVA’s indicate?
Only the geographic origin of the fruit used to make the wine. This is because the US does not have a wine tradition that associates a place w/ a certain wine type.
What are not specified in AVAs?
Grape varieties, maximum yields, minimum potential alchol.
True or false. AVAs are intended to be an indicator of quality.
Who usually propose new AVAs?
Producers within an area who seek legal recognition of their regional identity.
What must petitioners demonstrate to be approved by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms?
Must demonstrate that the area is geographically distinct (but not necessarily viticulturally or enologically distinct) and that the name proposed is one that is known for the area locally or nationally and has recognized boundaries.
Most wines do not have a distinct wine character of their own. What are the exceptions?
Stag’s leap: known for Cabernet Sauvignon
Carneros: Chardonnay and Pinot Noir
Who regulates wine production in the US?
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
What do BATF regulations specify?
Min. and max alcohol concentrations, what can and cannot be added to wine, what treatments can be used, and how wine must be labeled.
True or false. Chaptalization is allowed under federal law.
True. Commonly practiced in New York and Oregon.
True or false. Individual states are allowed to enact their own more stringent regulations.
True. Examples include prohibition of chaptalization in Cali and 90% varietal labeling in Oregon.
What is the caveat to using geographic label indicators?
It is not mandatory, but if geographic indication is used, a specified minimum of the fruit used to make the wine must have been grown within that area.
What is the fruit origin requirement for political name? (state, county)
What is the fruit origin requirement for AVA
What is the fruit origin requirement for any California place name
100% California grapes
What is the fruit origin requirement for any place name on Oregon wine?
100% from place named
What is the fruit origin requirement for vineyard designation
95% of the grapes must be from the named vineyard
What is the fruit origin requirement for estate bottled?
100% of the grapes must be from vineyards owned or controlled by the winery. Both vineyard and winery must be within an AVA also named on the label.
What is the requirement for grape variety on US label indicators?
75% of the named variety (90% in Oregon)
What is the requirement for Vintage on US label indicators?
95% of the wine must come from grapes harvested in the year stated.
What is the requirement for “contains sulfites” on US label indicators?
What is the requirement for Health warning on US label indicators?
What is the requirement for “produced and bottled by” or “made and bottled by” on US label indicators?
75% of the wine must be fermented, aged and bottled at indicated location
What is the requirement for “vinted and bottled by” or “cellared and bottled by” on US label indicators?
Not necessarily fermented at location indicated (pg 76)
What is the requirement for “reserve” on US label indicators?
No legal meaning in the US.
What is the distribution of wine grape production in the US governed by?
Climate and disease risk.
What happens to vitis vinifera in the northern part of the US
Winter cold is severe enough to prohibit the cultivation of Vitis vinifera.
What happens to vitis vinivera in the southern portion of the US?
Pierce’s deisease is endemic and will kill most vinifera vines within a few years.
In the Northeast, a few relatively shelted sites near water permit the cultifation of some of the more cold hardy vinifera varities. These are?
Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir.
However winter kill is still regular and involves significant financial risk.
Outside of California, what other states have significant wine industries?
New York, Washington, and Oregon.
Most of the grapes grown in New York are..
Concrods for juice and jelly.
What is the most serious limitations to wine grape production in New York?
Winter kill.
What happened in New york during the winters of 199-93 and 1993-94?
Significant winter kill occurred during the winters, killing many vinifera vines back to their trunks and necessitating the development of new vine structure from surviving parts of the vine.
What are the major wine growing areas of New York?
Finger Lakes, Hudson River Valley and Long Island.
Around Finger lakes, what are the most common vinifera varities?
Riesling, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir (only red variety that is sufficiently cold hearty).
What hybrid varieties exist at Finger Lakes that make very good wine?
Cauyga White, Seyval, Vidal blanc, Marechal Foch, and Baco noir.
Long Island has what kind of climate relative to Finger lakes?
Much more temperate due to the moderating influence of the ocean.
Long island has developed a reputation for..
Good Merlot
Phyloxera is native to..
New York. Vines are grafted to rootstocks.
Although most New York wineries are small and family owned, the state is also the home base of the largest wine company in the country called..?
Constellation Brands (formerly Canandaigua. Also owns several large facilities in California.
In Washington, about 2/3 of the vineyard area is planted to…
Concord grapes for juice and jelly. The rest are wine grapes.
New York and Washington are different in that..
All the wine grapes in Washington are vinifera varities.
Where are most of the wine grapes in Washington concentrated?
Southeast part of the state, along the Yakim and Colombia rivers.
What are the most important varities in Washington?
Chardonay, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon
Describe the state of phylloxera in Washington.
Known to have been in Washington for years. It is only recently that it has been found in wine grape vineyards. Rootstocks in Washington are not used now, but may become necessary in the future.
What is a regular problem in Washington?
Winter injury.
What is winter injury?
Vines are not usually killed outright but buds may be killed and new trunks must be trained from lower on the vine.
What causes the onset of crown gall disease?
Result from infection of cold injured trunk tissue by the crown gall bacteria.
What is the largest winery in Washington?
Chateau St. Michelle. Along with its sister winery, Columbia Crest, it uses about half the wine grapes produced in the state.
Oregon has a reputation for?
All of the vines in Oregon are..?
Although winter kill is not a problem in Oregon, what is?
Cool, wet spring weather during flowering can cause poor fruit set and low yields.
What are the most important wine growing areas in Oregon?
Willamette Valley and the Columbia River Basin.
What is the most important variety in Oregon?
Pinot Noir
What other important varieties come from Oregon?
Chardonnay, Riesling and Pinot gris.
What does Oregon’s state law require?
That a varietally labeled wine contain 90% of the named variety.
What does Oregon law prohibit?
The use of any European place names.
What is the large winery in Oregon?
King Estates.
How many wineries are in California?
More than 800.
In California, most wine grapes are..
Purchased from independent growers. There are about 5000 of them.
Many of the red grape varities in California are used to make..
Blush wines like White Zinfandel. Thus, although more than half the wine grapes growin Cali are red, much less than half of the wine is red.
Besides wine, California also produces a considerable volume of
Raising grapes and table grapes. Some grapes are also used for juice coentrate.
About 50% of the wine produced in California is
How is most California wine still labeled?
Generically (red table wine) or semi generically (California Chablis).
In California, the use of any European place name must be accompanied by..
A US place name.
How much of California wine is varietally labeled?
1/3 of the wine. However, since this wine is higher priced than generically labeled wine, varietally labeled wine accounts for a significantly higher percentage of the value of Cali wine production.
What are the fighting varietals?
Lower price varietal wines (under $7 for a 750 ml bottle) because of the fierce competition in this price segment. These wines also compete with wines produced in Chile, Europe, and elsewhere.
What two categories to California regions fall under?
Central Valley and Coastal
The Central Valley regions produce..
Almost all of the generic and semi generic wine as well as a lot of fighting varietal wines.
The Coastal regions produce..
The highest priced varietal wines.
In the summer, what is the central valley like?
Very hot.
During the summer, the coastal regions
Remain relatively cool because of the cooling influences of the ocean.
In California’s cool, coastal regions, what is varietal character like?
Character more intense, color more intense, aid is higher, fruit matures more slowly, yields are lower (2 – 5 tons per acre).
Describe the grapes in the Central Valley
Sugar concentration climbs higher, acitidty is lower and varietal character and color are not as pronounced. Yields are significantly higher.
Is irrigation necessary in the Central Valley?
In California, Spring frost is a risk where?
North coast regions like Napa and Sonoma.
Land prices are much lower in (California)
San Joaquin Valley
The price fo wine grapes in the Joaquin valley is lower/higher than coastal regions
True or False. Most of the varieties associated with expensive wines are grown in the San Joaquin Valley
In California, the appellation that can be used on the wine is governed by
The source of the fruit.
In the San Joaquin Valley, most grape growers think of themselves as farmers. Because the value of the fruit is relatively low, what must happen..?
Farming costs must be kept to a minium. Only necessary operations can be performed on the vineyard. Yield must be maximized without dropping below the minium quality standards imposed by the winery purchasing the fruit.
In the highest value coastal regions of California, grape growers consider themselves
Wine growers. It is grape quality not quanityt that is the most important consideration. Grapes are so valuable that a grower can afford to take extra steps to insure the quality.
What percent of tons crushed come from the San Joaquin valley? How much is this in dollar value?
80% grapes. 50% dollar value.
What percent of tons crushed comes from Coastal regions? How much is this in dollar value?
20% grapes. 50% of dollar value.
What is the fighting varietal capital of California?
Northern San Joaquin Valley. Although summer temperatures are not as hot as in the Southern Valley, thus better fruit quality, economics permit lower prices.
What wineries can be found in the Northen San Joaquin Valley?
Robert Mondavi Woodbridge, Delicato, Gallo
What is grown in the Southern San Joaquin Valley?
French Colombard, Chenin blanc, Barbera, Carignane, Grenache, and Thompson Seedless are grown here. Ficklin and Quady produce good port.
What grapes are usually grown in Mendocino?
Mostly whit varities like Chardonnay, Riesling, Gewurztariner.
What varities are grown around Ukiah?
Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet sauvignon, zinfandel, and some Rhone varities like Syrah.
Korbel comes from?
Russian River Valley
What is Sonoma county like?
Warmenr in the north, cooler in the south.
Where is Alexander Valley? What wineries can be found here?
Northeast part of Sonoma County. Jordan and Simi wineries are in this area.
What wineries are in the Sonoma Valley?
Sebastiani, Kenwood, Kunde, and Chateau St. Jean.
Where is the Carneros region?
This is the southernmost part of Sonoma county. Buena Vista winery is here and Gloria Ferrer (sparkling wine).
The Sonoma coast is emerging as..
An excellent place to grow Pinot noir and Chardonnay.
What large AVA is in Napa County?
Napa valley. This in turn contains several smaller AVAs.
Stag’s leap is..
A small AVA on the east side of the Napa valley known for its cabernet sauvignon.
The mountains on the east side of the napa valley contain
Howell Mountain AVA.
On the west side of napa county is..
Spring Mountain and Mount Veeder AVA.
The southernmost part of Napa Valley is
The Carnerors AVA, which covers both Napa and Sonoma counties. Planted mostly to Chardonnay and Pinot noir.
Carneros is one of the first US areas to..
Even approach the meaning of a European appellation of origion.
What have carneros producers formed?
The Carneros Quality Alliance to protect their names and promote the character of the region to the public.
For both Sonoma and napa, the warm norther ends tend to be planted to
Red varities, mostly Cabernet family and some Zinfandel.
For Sonoma and Napa, the cool southern end are home to
Chardonnay and Pinot Noir.
For Sonoma and Napa, the middle tends to be planted to
Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc and more Chardonnay.
The California Central Coast extends from
About Oakland to around Santa Barbara. There is a large central coast AVA but laso many smaller AVAs.
The Livermore valley is home to
Wente Winery.
In the hills to the east of the Salinas valley is..
The small Chalone AVA, home to Chalone winery.
The more northerly part of the Central Coast contains
A diverse mixture of Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, sauvignon blanc, zinfandel and others.
The southern part of the Cental Coast includes parts of
San Luis Obisp county and Santa Barbara County. Generally cool because of the ocean.
San Luis Obispo includes
Paso Robles AVA – home to wineries like Wild Horse and Meridian.
What valley is in Santa Barbara county?
Santa Ynez Valley: home to Firestone and Babcock wineries.
Tell me about the wine grape market in California.
Most of the grapes are cultivated by over 5000 independent growers who sell them to one or more of the 900 wineries. Some wineries own vineyards. Grapes from here go to the owner winery. In some cases, winery owned grapes may be sold to other wineries. Wineries also often buy and sell bulk to each other.
What happens wine a vineyard owner makes a long term sales contract w/ a particular winery?
That winery may require that specific cultivation practices be used (certain types of pruning or irrigation or pesticide spray schedule)
US regulation allows varietal wines to contain up to ___% of a different variety
Wine tastings are counducted with clear glasses so that..
The color and clarity of the wine can be examined.
What color are white wines usually?
Light yellow.
White wines darken to what with age or oxidation?
When young, red wines are
Ruby red with a purple tinge.
With age or oxidation, red wines typically become
Intensity of a color in a red wine may be related to..
Skin contact time and may be correlated to bitterness and astringency.
Color intensity is also related to
Grape variety.
Cloudiness in a wine is usually associated with
Microbial spoilage, but may also be found in some unfiltered wines.
Black glasses are used
To prevent the taster from seeing the color of the wine if it might bias his or her evaluation.
When food enters the mouth, aroma compounds pass into the
Retronasal cavity
To distinguish between wine aromas and tastes we..
Smell wine before putting it in our mouth.
Saltinessis rearely found in wine, but what are three are important?
Sweet, sour, bitter
Sweetness is usually not dectable unless the wine contains more than..
1% sugar.
Sourness is..
The same as tartness and comes from the acids in wine.
Bitterness in a wine comes from
Tannins. More prominent in reds.
Blind tasting should be used to..
Elicit objective evaluations.