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60 Cards in this Set

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What is Budbreak
aka Weeping or Bleeding
The start of the vines life cycle.Average temp of 50F.

Watery sap from pruned canes. Vine awakes form dormancy. Small shoots and leaves break through.
Flowering
Occurs 6 to 13 weeks after inital budbreak. The embryo bunches bloom into small flowers.
Fruit Set
Self polinating process of fertilization. This is when bunches turn into grape clusters.
Shatter
Usually 30% of the embryo grape cluster turns into grapes. The rest falls off.
Verasion
August- Grapes start to truly ripen. Sugars are moved into the leaf system. Grapes change color and acidity decreases.
Cane ripening
Happens in tandem with Verasion. Stems start to Lignify accumulation carbohydrates for the winter.
Vengade
Harvest
Degree Days
multiply the # of days in each month by the growing season. April 1 - Oct 31 by the mean # of degree days over 50F a month. The months totals are added together to arrive at the heat summation.
Degree Days
Region 1
Region2
Region 3
Region 4
Region 5
1. Less than 2500
2. 2500-3000
3. 3000-3500
4. 3500-4000
5.more than 4000
Terrior
Location,Topography,Soil, Climate
Macroclimate

Mesoclimate
Regional Climate

climate of a particular vineyard
Canopy Management
Pruning, leaf removal, shoot positioning,
High Ph in soil is common in what type
Limestone, and contributes to high acidity in wine
Clonal Selection or Mass Selection (selection massale)
Reinforcing positive traits. Disease resistant, hardiness, yields, aromatics, structure
Vitis riparia
Disease resistant American rootstock
Cordon Trained

Head Trained
The vine has at least one permanent cane that extends form the trunk called and arm or cordon

No permanent cordon and the trunk ends in a knob or head-require trellising
What type of pruning for head and Cordon vines
Head trained vines may be spur trained or cane pruned

Cordon trained vines are spur pruned
Guyot System

Double Guyot
Cane pruning/head training. 1860 Jules Guyot
Vertical trellis on which canes are suspended, 1 spur and 1 main 2yr cane

2 main canes extending outward from the trunk on opposite sides
What is the simplest form of spur-pruning/head training
Gobelet

S. Rhone and
S. Italy aka Albarello
Spain aka en Vaso
Austraila-Bush vine
Spur pruned/ cordon trained
Cordon de Royat

Pinot Noir and Champage

Geneva System
Lyre system-flat "U" with divided canopy
VSP
Vertical Shoot Positioning

Trellising system may be used with either spur or cane pruned vines
Pergola-Italy

Enforcado-Portugal
Tendone System-Vines trained upwards and along wooden frames. May either be spur or cane pruned
Powdery Mildew
OIDIUM
Uncinula Necator- fungus
Effects all green parts of the plant
inhibits ripening,reduces yields
Downy Mildew
PERONOSPORA-Fungal
Causes leaves to fall off and reduces the vines ability to photosynthesize. Visible oil spots in leaves
Bordeaux Mixture
Copper Sulfate, water, and Lime 1885
Dead Arm
EUTYPA DIEBACK
Carried by rain and enter plant through pruning wounds. Causes cane to die =dead arm
Black Rot
Native to North America
Guignardi bidwelli fungus
Can be controlled with fungicide
Bunch Rot
Fungus
Botytis Cinerea-Grey Rot
Breakdown of grape skin and allows yeast and bacteria in.
90% humidity to germinate
Pierce's Disease
Bacterial
Xylella Fastidiosa, transfered by the glassy winged sharpshooter
Dissables Chlorophyll production
Crown Gall
BLACK KNOT
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Tumors develop on the Trunk which strangle the vine
Bacterial Blight
Xanthomonas ampelina
kills young grapevine shoots
Leafroll Virus
Viral Diseases

Condition caused by a complex of at least nine different viruses, may be responsible for as much as 60% of the world’s grape production losses.

reduced yields and delayed ripening
Flavescence Dorée:
Phytoplasma Diseases

initially delay budbreak and slow shoot growth, eventually causing bunches to fall off the vine and berries to shrivel
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
sustainable approach to weed, insect, and disease problems that tolerates the targeted application of some synthetic products, but limits their use overall
VINEA
a voluntary group of Walla Walla Valley winegrowers who promote a holistic, socially- and environmentally-responsible methodology
LIVE
Low Input Viticulture and Enology
CCSW
California Certified Sustainable Winegrowing
What role does SO2 play during fermentation
Prevents oxidation and bacterial contamination and insures rapid fermentation
Difference between Sulfides and Sulfites
Sulfide-H2S Hydrogen Sulfide
Mercaptins and foul egg smell

Sulfites- SO2 Sulfur Dioxide
Battonage
Stirring of the Lees, which adds complexity and richness
Chaptalization
Addition of sugar to must to increase the final alcohol and glycerin content of the wine.
Reverse Osmosis
Separates the wine into two parts permeate-water and alcohol
and retentate-aromatic compunds lower % alc
Acidification
Tartaric-added prior to fermentation

Malic
Malolactic Fermentation
Malic-Harsh
Lactic-soft (found in yeast on grape skins)
Diacetyl
Compound responsible for buttery flavor
Carbonic Maceration
Grapes in an Anaerobic environment (CO2 blanket) have intracellular fermentation
ex. Nouveau Beaujolais
MOG

Jacks
Material other than grapes

Left over pieces of green stem
Cold Soak

anthocyanis
Pre-fermentation maceration to add color

tannin and color compounds
Chapeau

Pipeage
Red wine cap of grape skins and must

punch down
Remontage

Destelage
Maunal pumpover with fermenting wine

Post fermentation maceration
Vin de goutte

Vin de Presse
Free run wine

Pressed pomace=tanic corse wine
Elevage

Soutirage
Oak Aging

Racking
Collage
Fining
Name 5 fining agents
Bentonite (Clay)
Eggs
Gelatin
Casein (Mil Protein)
Isinglass (Sturgeon Bladder)
Debourbage

Cold Stabilization
Setteling of solids

Allows Tartrates in white wine to be removed
Saignane

Blending
Bled off juice with limited maceration time

Combine red and white
Schillerwein of Wurttemberg
Micro oxygenation
Microbullage

Aeration, small amounts of air allowed during fermentation and combined with Oak Chips
What type of Oak trees are French Barrels made from
Quercus Robur

Quercus petraea

Tight grain
America Oak
Quercus Alba-wider grain
Chauffage

Cintrage

Bousinage
warming

shaping

toasting