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139 Cards in this Set

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fat soluble vitamins
ADEK
toxicity more common: fat or h2o soluble vitamins
fat soluble - can accumulate in fat
syndromes that cause fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies
malabsorption syndromes (steatorrhea) like CF, sprue, or by mineral oil intake
water soluble vitamins
b1 (thiamine), b2(riboflavin), b3(niacin), b5 (pantochenic acid), b6 (pyridoxine), b12 (cobalamine), C, biotin, folate
B-complex deficiences result in.....
dermatitis, glossitis, diarrhea
vitamin A aka
retinol
vitamin A function
-constituents of visual pigments (retinal)
-cofactor for PTH
-CSF component
deficiency of vitamins A
night blindness
dry skin
hypoparathyroidism
vitamin A excess
arthalgia
fatigue
ha
skin changes
sore throat
alopecia
hyperparathyroidism
pseudotumor cerebri
B1 aka
thiamine
function of b1
in TPP(thiamine pyrophophate)
cofactor for oxidative phosphorylation
cofactor for transketolase
thiamine deficiency
beri beri
wenike-korsakoff syndrome
dry beri beri
polyneuritis, muscle wasting
wet beri beri
high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy)
edema
part of brain affected by wernike's encephalopathy
posterior temporal lobe
thiamine deficiciency is common in what populations?
malnourished
alcoholics
what part of brain affected by wernike-korsakoff?
mamillary bodies
b2 aka
riboflavin
function of b2
cofactor in oxidation/reduction (ex fadh2)
b2 deficiency
angular cheilosis,
stomatosis,
corneal vascularization
b3 aka
niacin
function of b3
constiuent of Nad+ Nadp+ (used in redox reactions)
aa that b3 is derived from
tryptophan
b3 deficiencies
pallegra/hartnup disease
malignant carcinoid
INH use
pallegra's 3 d's
dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
(also beefy glossitis)
hartnup's disease
decreased tryptophan absorption at kidneys
vitamin that b3 uses in its synthesis
b6
b5 aka
pantothenic acid
b5 function
constituent of coA (cofactor for acyl transferase)
constituent of FA synthesis
dehydrogenases
b5 deficiency
dermatitis
enteritis
alopecia
adrenal insufficiency
b6 aka
pyridoxine
b6 function
transamination (when converted to pyridoxal phosphate)
heme synthesis
b6 deficiency
convulsions
hyperirritability
peripheral neuropathy
sideroblastic anemia
what drugs induce b6 deficiency
inh
oral contraceptives
vitamin b12 aka
cobalamin
b12 function
cofactor for homocysteine methylation
cofactor for methyl-malonyl coA handling
homocysteine + N-methyl THF
-->
Methionine + THF
methylmalonyl coA + b12
succinyl coA
B12 storage
at liver (acts like fat soluble)- only h20 soluble vitamin that doesn't wash out quickly
b12 synthesis
via microorganisms
detects b12 defieciency
schilling test
what is the source of b12
only in animal products
b12 deciency
megaloblastic anemia + neuropathy (optic neuropathy, subacute combined degeneration, parasthesia) - due to abn myelin
glossitis
causes of b12 deficiency
malabsorption syndromes - sprue, enteritis, d. latum
lack of intrinsic factor - pernicious anemia
absent terminal ileum - chron's disease
abnormal myelin seen in b12 decifiency
not enough methionine
too much methyl-malonic acid
(from metabolism of accumulated methyl-malonyl coA)
what tracts are affected by b12 defiency
the longest ones, cs and dc
function of folic acid
coenzyme (as tetrahydrofolate) for 1-C transfer
in methylation reactions
synthesis of purines/thymidine
1st vitamin to run out with rapidly dividing cells
folate
source of folate
green leafy vegetables
most common vitamin deficiency in USA
folate
folate deficiency
megaloblastic anemia (- neuropathy)
neural tube defects
homocysteinuria
folic acid precursor in bacteria
paba
drugs that are paba analogs
sulfa drugs
dapsone
function of biotin
carboxylation (ex clotting factors)
pyruvate -> OAcetate
AcoA -> malonyl-coA
propionyl-coA -> methylmalonyl-coA
causes of biotin deficiency
ingest raw eggs
antibiotic use
biotin deficiency
dermatitis
enteritis
function of vitamin c
hydroxylation Pro/Lys in collagen synthesis
iron absorption (Fe2+)
cofactor for catecholamine synthesis (dop -> ne)
antioxidant at gut
milk vit d
ergocalciferol
sun-exposed skin vit d
cholecalciferol
storage form of vit d
25-oh d3
what tracts are affected by b12 defiency
the longest ones, cs and dc
function of folic acid
coenzyme (as tetrahydrofolate) for 1-C transfer
in methylation reactions
synthesis of purines/thymidine
1st vitamin to run out with rapidly dividing cells
folate
source of folate
green leafy vegetables
most common vitamin deficiency in USA
folate
folate deficiency
megaloblastic anemia (- neuropathy)
neural tube defects
homocysteinuria
folic acid precursor in bacteria
paba
drugs that are paba analogs
sulfa drugs
dapsone
function of biotin
carboxylation (ex clotting factors)
pyruvate -> OAcetate
AcoA -> malonyl-coA
propionyl-coA -> methylmalonyl-coA
causes of biotin deficiency
ingest raw eggs
antibiotic use
biotin deficiency
dermatitis
enteritis
function of vitamin c
hydroxylation Pro/Lys in collagen synthesis
iron absorption (Fe2+)
cofactor for catecholamine synthesis (dop -> ne)
antioxidant at gut
milk vit d
ergocalciferol
sun-exposed skin vit d
cholecalciferol
storage form of vit d
25-oh d3
active form of vitamin D
1,25 (oh) d3
vitamin D function
increases intestinal absorption of ca/p
vit d deficiencies
rickets - kids
osteomalacia - adults
hypocalcemic tetany
vid. d resistant rickets
lateral bowing (bending bones)
vit. d deficiency
soft bones in an adult
osteomalacia
vit d excess
hypercalcemia
stupor, loss of appetite
systemic disease with a lot of vit. d
sarcoidosis - epithelioid mac's convert vit. d into its active form
function of vitamin E
antioxidant at blood
skin, eyes, hair
vit. e deficiency
hemolytic anemia - increased fragility of rbc's
neurodysfunction
vit. defiiciency with retinopathy and alzheimers
vit. e deficiency
functions of Fe
hb
supports etc (complex 3 and 4)
most abundant mineral
calcium
ca function
EC Ca- contraction of atria
IC ca - all muscles
bone development
neuronal development (nt release)
Cu function
hydroxylation of Lysine
Cu deficiency
minky kinky hair
cu toxicity
wilson's disease
treatment of wilson's
penicillamine
keiser fleisher rings
wilson's disease
deficiency in cu toxicity
ceruloplasmin
mineral for insulin action
chromium
mineral for heart; toxicity causes garlic breath
selenium
xanthine oxidase
manganese
important minerals for glycolysis
manganese and molebdenium
Mg function
cofactor of kinases
cofactor of pth
hair growth
tin
bone/teeth growth
fluoride
catalyzes gamme carboxylation of gluatmic acid residues
vitamin k
vitamins related to the gut flora
biotin
folate
vit. k (90%)
pantothenic acid
helps absorb b12
neonatal hemorrhage with high PT and high PTT but normal bleeding time
vit. k
(bc neonates have sterile intestines, so can't synthesize vitamin K)
mineral predisposes to alcoholic cirrhosis
zinc
delayed wound healing + hypogonadism + dysgusia + decreased adult hair
zinc deficiency
vitamin for blood and neural development
folate
vitamin for blood and cns development
cobalamine
night blindness + dry skin
vit A deficiency
arthralgia + fatigue + ha + skin changes + sore throat + alopecia
vit A excess
moans, bones, groans, stones
vit. a excess
beri beri
thiamine deficiency
wenike-korsakoff
thiamine deficiency
for oxidative decarboxylation of alpha keto acids, pyruvate, branched chained aa, and transketolase
thiamine
polyneuritis, muscle wasting
dry beri beri
high output cardiac failure
wet beri beri
corneal vascularization + magenta tongue
riboflavin deficiency
carcinoid syndrome
b3 deficiency
diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis
pellegra with b3 deficiency
increased tryptophan metabolism
carcinoid syndrome - b12 deficiency
dermatitis + alopecia + enteritis + adrenal insufficiency
pantothenic acid deficiency
constiuent of coenzyme A
pantothenic acid
component of fatty acid synthesis and dehydrogenases
pantothenic acid
transamination
pyridoxine
heme synthesis
pyridoxine
megaloblastic anemia + neuropathy
b12 deficiency
cofactor for homocysteine methylation
cobalamine
methylmalonyl-coa handling
cabalamine
abnormal myelin
cobalamine
megaloblastic anemia (without neurologic symptoms)
folate
coenzyme for tetrahydrofolate (1 c transfer)
folate
methylation reactions
folate
synthesis of N bases
folate
in egg whites
biotin
scurvy
ascorbic acid
facilitates iron absorption
ascorbic acid
used in synthesis of catecholamines
ascorbic acid
deficiency causes increased fragility of erythrocytes
vit. E
antioxidant at blood
E