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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
vitamins
essential organic molevules needed in very small amounts for cellular metabolism
DRI
dietary reference intake
RDA
recommended dietary allowance
AI
adequate intake
UL
tolerable upper intake level
vitamin categories
-water soluble vitamins
-fat-soluble vitamins
water-soluble vitamins
vitamins that dissolve or disperse in water
-B complex vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folate, b12, biotin, pantothenic acid), choline, vitamin C
-tissues are saturated with these vitamins, but they are not stored
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins that dissolve in fatty tissues or substances
-vitamins A, D, E, and K
-stored if excess, but can be toxic
phytochemical
nonnutritive substance in plant-based foods that appears to have disease-fighting properties
beriberi
severe chronic deficiency of thiamin characterized by muscle weakness and pain, anorexia, mental disorientation, and tachycardia
coenzyme
a substance that activates an enzyme
ataxia
muscle weakness and losso f coordination
tachycardia
rapid beating of the heart
wet beriberi
thiamine deficiency with edema affecting cardiac function by weakening of the heart muscle and vascular system
dry beriberi
thiamine deficiency affecting the nervous system producing paralysis and extreme muscle wasting
Wernicke-Korsackoff syndrome
cerebral form of beriberi that affects the central nervous system
ariboflavinosis
a group of symptoms associated with riboflavin deficiency
cheilosis
inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth and lips (angular stomatitis) caused by riboflavin and other B vitamin deficiencies
glossitis
inflammation of the tongue
pellagra
deficiency disorder of niacin characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia
diarrhea
damage to the GI tract affects digestion, absorption, and excretion of food, leading to glossitis, vomiting, and diarrhea
dermatitis
symmetrical scaly rash occurs only on skin exposed to sun
dementia
as the central nervous system becomes affected in severe deficiencies, confusion, anxiety, incomnia, and paranoia develop
spina bifida
a congential defect of the spinal colun causing the spinal cord to be unprotected, resulting in a range of disabilities including paralysis and incontinence
anencephaly
a congenital defect in which the brain does not deveop; death occurs shortly after birth
intrinsic factor
a substance produced by stomach mucosa that is required for vitamin B12 absorption
pernicious anemia
inadequate red blood cell formation caused by a lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach with which to absorb vitamin B12
scurvy
extreme vitamin C deficiency disorder characterized by inflammation of connective tissues, gingivitis, muscle degenration, bruising, and hemorrhaging as the vascular system weakens
antioxidant
a compound that guards other compounds from damaging oxidation
night blindness
the inability of the eyes to readjust vision from bright to dim light, caused by vitamin A deficiency
xerophthalmia
condition caused by vitamin A deficiency ranging from night blindness to kerotomalacia, may result in complete blindness
keratomalacia
condition caused by vitamin deficiency in which the cornea becomes dry and thickens from the formation of hard protein tissue
rickets
childhood disorder caused by a vitamin D disorder or calcium deficiency that leads to insufficient mineralization of bone and tooth matrix
osteomalacia
adult disorder caused by vitamin D or calcium deficiency characterized by soft, demineralized bones
osteoporosis
multifactorial disorder in which bone density is reduced and remaining bone is brittle, breaking easily
cystic fibrosis
genetic disorder in which excessive mucus is produced, primarily affecting respiratory airways; also limits fat absorption in the digestive system; most common among Caucasian populations
biliary atresia
a congenital condition in which the major bile duct is blocked, limiting the availability of bile for fat digestion
hyperbilirubinemia
neonatal condition of excessively high levels of bilirubin (red bile pogment) leading to jaundice, in which bile is deposited in tissues throughout the body