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14 Cards in this Set

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Vitamin A
-Beta-Carotene converts to vitamin A
-Function:
*Vision
*Protein synthesis
*Reproduction
*Antioxidant
-Dificiency:
*Night blindness
*Drying of skin & mucous membranes
*Increase risk of infection
-Sources:
*Fortified milk and cereal
*Carrots
*Apricots
*Spinach
-Most amount: sweet potato, beef liver
Vitamin D (cholecalciferol)
-Functions:
*Calcium & phosphorus absorption
*Bone mineralization
*Maintains serum calcium & phosphorus levels
-Sources:
*Yeast
*Fish Oils
*Fortified cereals and dairy products
*Synthesized in the skin w/exposure to sunlight
-Deficiency:
*Rickets
*Osteomalacia (brittle bones)
*Osteoporosis
-Most amount: Milk
Vitamin E
-Functions:
*Antioxidant
*Protects cell membrane from breakdown
*Protects lungs from pollutants
*Defends against heart disease (LDL)
*Protects RBCs in premature babies
-Sources:
*Vegetable oils
*Nuts and seeds (almonds and sunflwrs)
*Wheat germ
-Deficiency:
*Occur with premature babies and others with impaired fat absorption (which occurs in the small intestine)
-Most amount: Almonds, sweet potato
Vitamin K
-Functions:
*Major role in clotting
*May help to prevent osteoporosis
*Can be synthesized in GI tract
*Newborns have sterile GI (so no vit K)
-Source:
-Most amount: Green leafy vegetables
B Complex Vitamins
Thiamin*
Riboflavin*
Niacin*
Panthothenic Acid
Biotin*
Pyridoxine
Folate
Cobalamin
* = helps release energy from glucose, amino acids, & fats
-Function:
*Co-enzymes: a small molecule that combines w/enzyme to make it active
*Thousands of molecular conversions depend on B vitamin coenzymes
*Influence metabolic processes
-Deficiency: (rarely isolated)
*Beri Beri in southeast asia
*Pellegra in Southern US
Thiamin (B1)
-Function:
*Releases energy from glucose
*Plays role in nerve conduction
-Sources:
*Grains, cereals, legumes, pork
-Deficiency:
*Beri Beri
*Breast fed babies of deficient moms
*Alcoholics
-Most amount: Pork
Riboflavin (B2)
-Function:
*metabolism of protein & other vitamins
*Destroyed by UV rays
-Sources:
*Whole grains
*Vegetables
*Dairy
*Meals
*Eggs
-Deficiency:
*Oral problems: glossitis, swollen lips
*Skin conditions: seborrheic dermatitis
-Most amount: liver, wheat flakes
Niacin (B3)
-Function:
*Coenzyme
*Body can manufacture
-Source:
*Red meats and liver
*Cereals
*Legumes
*Milk, coffee, tea
-Deficiency:
*Diarrhea
*Dermatitis
*Dementia
*Death
-Most amount: liver, wheat flour
Pyridoxine (B6)
The Sleeping Giant
-Functions:
*Coenzyme for amino acids and protein
*Neurotransmitter formation & hemoglobin synthesis
*Along with B6, folate, & B12 may lower risk of heart disease
-Sources:
*Sweet potatoes, whole grains, cereals, legumes, chicken, fish , pork & eggs
Deficiencies:
*Insomnia
*weakness and confusiong
-Most amount: potato
Folate
-Functions:
*Coenzymes for synthesis of amino acids, DNA & RNA
*Prevents defects during pregnancy
-Sources:
*Leafy green vegetables, cereals, legumes, some fruits
-Deficiency:
*anemia
*diminished immunity
*abnormal digestive function
-Most amount: liver, beans
Cobalamin (B12)
-Function:
*Assists in cell division
-Sources:
*Almost exclusively animal products (meat, cheese, eggs)
-Deficiency:
*Anemia
*Neuro symptoms
*Requires "intrinsic factor" (in stomach) for absoption
-Most amount: liver, clams
B Complex
All except folate and B12 are readily found in cereals and grains
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
-Functions:
*Collagen formation
*RBC formation
*Antioxidant
*Amino acid
*anti-scurvy
*cancer prevention
*Need every day
-Need more intake:
*Cigarette smoking
*Stress
*Infection
*Surgery
*Burns
*long term use of aspirin, birth controls
-Most amount: papaya
Types of Vitamins
-Water Soluble: Vitamin B & C
*Not stored by body
*Need daily supply from diet
*May be effected by food proc. & stor.
-Fat Soluble: Vitamins A, D, E, & K
*Can be stored in liver & fatty tissue
*Allows flexibility in daily diet
*Conditions that affect fat absorption affect vitamin deficiencies
*Vitamin content highest in fresh foods