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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
1. Pork, legumes, peanuts, whole grains
2. coenzyme used in removing CO2 from organic compounds
3. Beriberi (nerve disorders, emaciation, anemia)
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
1. Dairy Products, meats, grains
2. Component of coenzymes FAD and FMN
3. Skin lesions such as cracks at corners of mouth
Niacin
1. Nuts, meats, grains
2. component of coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+
3. skin and gastrointestinal lesions, nervous disorders
3.1. Flushing of face and hands, liver damage
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
1. meats, vegetables, whole grains
2. coenzyme used in amino acid metabolism
3. irritability, convulsions, muscular twitching, anemia
3.1. unstable gait, numb feet, poor coordination
Pantothenic acid
1. most foods: meats, dairy products, whole grains
2. component of coenzyme A
3. fatigue, numbness, tingling of hands and feet
Folic acid (folacin)
1. green vegetables, oranges, nuts, legumes, whole grains (also made by colon bacteria)
2. coenzyme in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism
3. anemia, gastrointestinal problems
3.1. may mask deficiency of vitamin B12
Vitamin B12
1. meats, eggs, dairy products
2. coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; needed for maturation of red blood cells
3. anemia, nervous system disorders
Biotin
1. legumes, other vegetables, meats 2. coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids
3. scaly skin inflammation, neuromuscular disorders
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
1. fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, broccoli, cabbage, tomatoes, green peppers
2. used in collagen synthesis (e.g., for bone, cartilage, gums); antioxidant; aids in detoxification; improves iron absorption
3. scurvy (degenartion of skin, teeth, blood vessels), weakness, delayed wound healing, impaired immunity
3.1. gastrointestinal upset
Vitamin A (retinol)
1. provitamin A (beta-carotene) in deep green and orange vegetables and fruits; retinol in dairy products
2. componenet of visual pigments; needed for maintainence of epithelial tissues; antioxidant; helps prevent damage to lipids of cell membranes
3. vision problems; dry, scaling skin
3.1. headache, irritability, vomiting, hair loss, blurred vision, liver and bone damage
Vitamin D
1. dairy products, egg yolk (also made in human skin in presence of sunlight)
2. aids in absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus; promotes bone growth
3. rickets (bone deformities) in children, bone softening in adults
3.1. brain, cardiovascular, and kidney damage
Vitamin E (tocopherol)
1. vegetabgle oils, nuts, seeds
2. antioxidant; helps prevent damage to lipids of cell membranes
3. none well documented in humans; possibly anemia
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)
1. green vegetables, tea (also made by colon bacteria)
2. important in blood clotting
3. defective blood clotting
3.1. liver damage and anemia
Calcium
1. dairy products, dark green vegetables, legumes
2. bone and tooth formation, blood clotting, nerve and muscle function
3. retarded growth, possibly loss of bone mass
Phosphorus
1. dairy products, meats, grains
2. bone and tooth formation, acid-base balance, nucleotide synthesis
3. weakness, loss of minerals from bone, calcium loss
Sulfur
1. Proteins from many sources
2. componenet of certain amino acids
3. symptoms of protein deficiency
Potassium
1. meats, dairy products, many fruits and vegetables, grains
2. acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
3. muscular weakness, paralysis, nausea, heart failure
Chlorine
1. table salt
2. aic-base balance, formation of gastric juice, nerve function, osmotic balance
3. muscle cramps, reduced appetite
Sodium
1. table salt
2. acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
3. muscle cramps, reduced appetite
Magnesium
1. whole grains, green leafy vegetables
2. cofactor; ATP bioenergetics
3. nervous system disturbances
Iron
1. meats, eggs, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetabgles
2. componenet of hemoglobing and of electron carriers in energy metabolism; enzyme cofactor
3. iron defeciency anemia, weakness, impaired immunity
Fluorine
1. drinking water, tea seafood
2. maintainance of tooth (and PROBABLY bone) structure
3. higher frequency of tooth decay
Zinc
1. meats, foods, grains
2. componenet of certain digestive enzymes and other proteins
3. growth failure, scaly skin inflammation, reproductive failure, impaired immunity
Copper
1. seafood, nuts, legumes, organ meats
2. enzyme cofactor in iron metabolism, melanin synthesis, electron transport
3. anemia, bone and cardiovascular changes
Mangenese
1. nuts, grains, vegetables, fruits, tea
2. enzyme cofactor
3. abnormal bone and cartilage
Iodine
1. seafood, dairy products, iodized salt
2. componenet of thyroid hormones
3. goiter (enlarged thyroid)
Cobalt
1. meats and dairy products
2. component of vitamin B12
3. none, except as B12 deficiency
Selenium
1. seafood, meats, whole grains
2. enzyme cofactor; antioxidant function in close association with vitamin E
3. muscle pain, possibly heart muscle deteriotation
Chromium
1. brewer's yeast, liver, seafood, meats, some vegetables
2. involved in glucose and energy metabolism
3. impaired glucose metabolism
Molybdenum
1. legumes, grains, some vegetables
2. enzyme cofactor
3. disorder in excretion of nitrogen-containing compounds