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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_ produces fluid that enters the posterior chamber, flows through _ and drains into__
Ciliary body epithelium
Pupillary opening
Canal of Schlemm
Constricts iris reducing pupil size _ (nerve - parasympathetic/sympathetic)
CN III - parasympathetic Ach
Part of nervous system that increases pupil size
Sympathetic (NE)
Any condition that occludes canals of Schlemm leads to what condition
Glaucoma
Myelinated axons of the optic nerve are covered by _
Dura
Photoreceptors release _ (NT) on _ which then activate ganglion cells. Axons of ganglion cells make _
GLutamate
Bipolar cells
CN II
In dark rods and cones release _
Glutamate
In light rods and cones release glutamate - T/F
FALSE - only in dark
Light converts cis-Rodopsin to _ thus activating _ which activates _ which breaks down _ , without it cell polarizes and stops releasing glutamate
Trans-rodopsin
G protein
Phosphodiesterase
cGMP
_ have excitatory glutamate activity and release _ on surrounding cons and rods
Horizontal cells
GABA
_ bipolar interconnecting neuron dendrites have inhibitory glutamate receptors
_ dendrites have excitatory glutamate receptors
On center

Off center
Nucleus that is responsible for vision is _ and it transfers information to _
LGN

Occipital cortex
Nucleus responsible for visual tracking is _ and it transfers information to _
Superior colliculus

Pulvinar
Nucleus responsible for diurnal rhythms is _
Hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus
Nuclei responsible for pupillary light reflex are _
Accessory optic nuclei
Olivary pretectal nuclei
Visual field consists of _ hemifields
Nasal and temporal
Which hemifield of visual field always crosses to other side
Nasal
Pituitary tumors commonly interfere with _
Optic chiasm
Visual acuity is best at _
Fovea and binocular regions
An increase in intracranial pressure will first show up in _
Retina (optic nerve surrounded by meninges)
Major projection of axons from retinal ganglion cells is to _
LGN
There are two major streams of information leaving retina - magnocellular - from _ and with large receptive fields and axons, and parvocellular - derived from _ small receptive fields, central location
Rods

Cones
Damage to the left eye or left optic nerve would result in _
Loss of vision in left eye
Patient presents with complete loss of vision in left eye - where is the lesion
Left optic nerve (aneurysm)
Patient presents with large aneurysm that compresses left optic nerve and also affects chiasm - what is the visual loss pattern
Complete loss of visual loss in the left eye
Upper right quadrant loss of the right eye
Patient is diagnosed with large pituitary tumor that is pressing directly and symmetrically on chiasm - what is visual loss pattern
Temporal hemifield of both eyes is lost
Patient presents with contralateral homonymous hemianopia - loss of right visual field in both eyes - where is the lesion
Optic tract
LGN has _ layers
6
Layers _ of LGN have large cells (magnocellular) and layers _ have small cells (parvocellular)
1,2

3-6
Axons from temporal hemiretina ( _ visual field) terminate in layers _ of ipsilateral LGN
Inner

2, 3, 5
Axons from nasal hemiretina ( _ visual fields) terminate in layers __ of contralateral LGN
1, 4, 6

Outer
Binocular vision is formed in _
Cerebral cortex
Primary visual cortex lies on either side of _
Calcarine sulcus
Superior bank of calcarine sulcus is _

Inferior bank is _
Cuneus

Lingual gyrus
Areas 18 and 19 get input from _
Area 17 and pulvinar
Optic radiations are formed by axons arising from _ and target _
LGB

Primary visual cortex
Upper visual field arises in _ LGB and travels through _
Ventrolateral
Meyers loop
Lower visual field quadrant arises in _ and travel through _
Dorsomedial LGB
Retrolenticular limb of internal capsule
Patient presents with left superior homonymous quadratonopia (quarter of left upper visual field is affected) - where is the lesion
Right Meyers loop
Layer _ of visual cortex is wide and receives input from LGB
4
Fovea is represented more (posterior/anterior) then peripheral regions
Posterior
Takes up nearly half of primary visual cortex
Fovea
Damage to areas 18, 20, 21 lead to _
Agnosias
Patient presents with perceptual defect following stroke - condition is called
Apperceptive agnosia
Patient presents after stroke - he can describe objects but cant assign any meaning to them - he is suffering from _
Associative agnosia
Patient has object agnosia - where is the lesion (left/right)
Left (dominant) side
Patient presents after stroke with inability to recognize faces - name condition
Prosopognosia
Patient presents after stroke, he can write but he cant read - condition and which part of brain affected
Alexia without agraphia - splenium of corpus callosum
Patient after stroke cannot recognize colors - where is the damage and condition name
Achromatopsia - fusiform gyrus
Patient has lost voluntary eye movement following stroke - name condition and where lesion
Balint syndrome
Parieto-occipital junction
Patient has lost ability to understand visual objects following stroke - name condition
Asimultagnosia
Projection to suprachiasmatic nucleus is via _
Retinohypothalamic tract
_ nucleus functions as biological clock, responsible for circadian rhythms
Suprachiasmatic
In pupillary light reflex retinal projections to _ are important
Pretectum
Retinal ganglion cells, pretectum neurons, Edinger Westphal nucleus, ciliary ganglion neurons and ciliary body are all involved in _
Pupillary light reflex
_ coordinates visual, somatic and auditory information and directs head and eyes toward stimuli
Superior colliculus