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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
myopia
near-sighted [can't see far]
MOST COMMON
light rays connect in front of retina
hyperopia
far-sighted [can't see near]
light rays connect behind retina
presbyopia
farsightedness that occurs with natural process of aging
lens becomes firmer, less elastic, and larger
aphakia
absence of the lens
images are projected behind rentina
S/S of cataracts
painless loss of vision, decrease in visual acuity, glare and light sensitivity, blurred vision, white pupils, absent red reflex
risk factors of cataracts
age related, trauma, DM, heredity, excessive exposure to sun, certain drugs
Mydriatic
dilate pupil
cycloplegic
pralayze acommodation and dilate pupil
NSAID
reduces inflammation
activities that increase IOP
bending over at waist, sneezing, coughing, straining, vomiting, head hyperflexion, restrictive clothing, sex
keratitis
inflammation or infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of microorganisms or by other factors
conjunctivitis
infection or inflammation of the conjunctiva
Most common bacterial infection of the eye
acute bacterial conjunctivitis PINK EYE!
most common causative organism is s. aureus
glaucoma
increased IOP and consquences of elevated pressure, optic nerve atrophy and peripheral visual field loss
normal IOP
10-21 mmHg
Open angle glaucoma
most common
develops slowly without symptoms
caused by decreased outflow of aqueous humor
acute angle glaucoma
Sudden onset with excruciating pain
nausea and vomiting, halos, blurred vision, ocula reddness, corenal edema with frosted apperence

EMERGENCY!!
meds to reduce IOP
beta blockers [decreases production]
alpha adrenergic agonists [decreases production and increases outflow]
cholingeric agents (miotics) [stimulate iris sphincter contraction]
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors[ decreases production]
mydriatic eye drops
dilate
monitor for signs of systemic toxicity [tachycardia, CNS effects]
wear dark glasses
phenylephrine HCL acid [neo-synephrine, mydfrin]
miotic eye drops
constricts pupil
cautions pt about decreased visual acuity [particularly in dim light]
cholingeric agents [carbachol, isopto]
cycloplegic eye drops
paralyze and dilate pupil
dim lights in room, montior for signs of system toxicity [tachycardia, CNS effects], wear dark glasses!
atropine
Beta-blocking eye drops
decreases aqueous humor
dont take if bradycradic, cardiogenic shock, or cardio failure
betaxolol [betoptic]
retinal detachment
layer of retina seperates dus to accumulation of fluid between the layers
breaks can be tears or holes
S/S of retinal detachment
bright flashesof light
floaters
partial "curtain drawing over visual field" sensation
loss of vision
painLESS
tx of retinal detachment
laser photocoagulation [creates scar which seals edges]
cryoretinopexy [extreme cold creates inflammatory response]
trauma to eye
DO NOT put pressure on eye
intrust pt to NOT blow nose
stabilize foreign object
cover the eye with dry, sterile patch
do not give food or fluids
chemical injury to eye
ocular irrigation immediately
do not stop until instruceted to do so
sterile sline is best-- water if not avaliable
reassure the patient
monitor pain
macular degeneration
most common cause of irreversible central vision loss in perons over age 60
dry macular degeneration
90% of cases
close vision task more difficult
more cellular
slowly progressive
wet macular degeneration
10% of cases
if untreated will become funtionally blind
rapid onset
more vascular