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71 Cards in this Set

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What are viruses?
Viruses are obligatory, intercellular parasites. Technically, they are not alive because they can't reproduce on their own.
Can't survive without host.
Can't reproduce on their own.
What is the host range of viruses?
Not a single, known living species doesn't have a viral parasite. Because of this, they host range is huge - plants, animals and even bacteria have viruses.
Is this big or what?
What is the size of viruses?
Viruses are measured in nanometers (billionths of a meter). They are in the
submicroscopic level. The smallest is 20 nm (Yellow Fever) and the largest is 300 nm (Pox viruses)
Is this teeny or what?
What is the structure of viruses?
Viruses contain three major structures:
1. Nucleic Acid - DNA or RNA
2. Capsid (Capsomer) - a protein coat made up of sub-units named capsomer (balls).
3. Enveloped - a sticky protective layer - (not all viruses have an envelope - the ones that don't are called "naked") "oh my"
Two acids
Three "Coats"
One outer layer
(sounds like dressing for the Winter, doesn't it?)
Viral Diseases (there are a bunch) How to remember them? I separate into DNA and RNA.
They all end with the suffix viridae so I just need to remember each prefix.
The DNA ones: PHHAPP -
Pox, Herpes, Hepadna, Adeno, Papo, Parvo

The RNA ones: OPRCTBFFPRR Orthomyxo, Paramyxo, Rhabdo, Corona, Toga, Bunya, Filo, Flavi, Picorna, Retro, Reo.
To make a good pnemonic, there needs to be a few more vowels - don't you think?
DNA = This almost makes me phhapp (y). Yes, sometimes I stutter.
RNA = Sort of looks like a month in the fall - I said, "sort of".
Poxviridae "Small Pox"-
Cause:
Caused by viriola virus
vv
Poxviridae "Small Pox"- Symptoms:
A. Flu-like symptoms
B. Malaise (exreme weakness), protrati
C. Fever
D. Rash (telltale sign):pox-postules flled with pus. There may be a few or maybe, they will cover you from head to toe.
E. Also infects internal organs (pox internal)- creating a buildup of toxins
F. Death rate -20% to 60%
G. Children are less seriously affected that older folks.
Now I don't feel so good.
Poxviridae "Small Pox" -
Transmission
Aerosols - very easily transmitted
I wish people would cover their mouth and nose when they sneeze.
Poxviridae "Small Pox" - Treatment
No Treatment, just relieve symptoms
What do you mean, no treatment!? Have you lost your mind? I want to talk to the person in charge here. What do you mean, no treatment?

Poxviridae "Small Pox" - Control
Vaccine (may be an allergic reaction) 1 to 2 cases in 1 million will have an allergic reaction and die.
I wonder if I am one of those 1 or 2?
Poxviridae "Small Pox:
Classification
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Complex
Envelope: Enveloped
DDCE
(sorry, I couldn't think of anything else to offer as a hint)
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 - Oral Herpes
HSV-1 or Herpes Simplex Virus (commonly referred to as "fever blister"
You would think this one would pop right out of your mouth.
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 - Oral Herpes Symptoms:
A. Fever Blisters
B. Cold Sores
C. Open lesions
D. May come and go - might stay dormant for years; associated with stress (both physical and emotional)
oh - oh
my inlaws are coming! They might want to kiss me.
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 - Oral Herpes Transmission:
Any close contact
How far away can I get in a three bedroom house?
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 - Oral Herpes Treatment:
Acyclovir (won't kill the virus, but will knock it back)
Menthol and camphor will relieve symptoms
I smell like my grandmother.
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 - Oral Herpes Control:
No Control
How about no kissing at all.
Herpesviridae - HSV 1 -
Oral Herpes Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE

Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes
Genital herpes, but can also occur in oral cavity and eyes
I wonder if you can get it by looking?
Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes Symptoms:
A. Open Lesions
B. Can go dormant
C. External and internal
D. Outbreaks usually associated with stress, both mental and physical
E. Can cause Neonatal Herpes Simplex - child born to mother with reoccuring HSV-2; typically affects skin of newborn.
F. Extreme cases can go to Central Nervous System; then mortality rate is 80%
Makes you want to swear off sex forever.
Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes Transmission:
Sexual (STD) and Congenital (neonatal during birthing process)
If you don't have sex, you don't have to worry about passing it on to your children.
Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes Treatment:
Acyclovir (cuts down on length and duration)
Menthol and Camphor reduces symptoms
If you smell like your grandmother, it isn't exactly like a phermone, is it?
Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes Control:
Avoid sexual contact with infected individuals
How do you ask the question?
Um, excuse me, how have you been feeling lately? Any strange bumps?
Herpesviridae - HSV 2 - Genital Herpes Classification
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Caused by V-Z Virus (Varicella Zoster)
Those initials don't come up in conversation often, do they? I once had a cousin whose name was Vince Zee. No, really...
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Symptoms:
A. Incubation - 10 - 20 days
B. Fever
C. Rash (little pus-filled pimples). Typically starts on face and spreads to rest of body. Can have a few or hundreds. Will crust and scab over and if scratched, will create scars.
D. More severe in adults and death can occur (small chance)
E. Can advance to secondary infections
I'm glad I got it as a kid.
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Transmission:
Aerosols - contact with other chicken pox victims
Aerosols - contact with adults with shingles
Can you spray Lysol on children and adults?
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Treatment:
No treatment
Reduce symptoms
I wonder what the medical labs are working on?
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Control:
Vaccine - 75% effective
What about the other 25%?
Herpesviridae - Chickenpox or Varicella (clinical name)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE
Herpesviridae - Shingles (Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Caused by V-Z virus that has gone dormant, but is now reactivated.
vz (remember Cousin Vinny)? He is like a bad penny - it just keeps showiing up.
Herpesviridae - Shingles
(Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Symptoms:
A. Inflammatiom of nerve endings where V-Z virus is residing (typically around pressure points - waistbands, bra straps)
B. Mental and physical stress
C. Secondary bacterial infections can occur
Can acupuncture help here?
Herpesviridae - Shingles
(Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Transmission:
No real transmission, just the reactiviation of V-Z virus
You would think that once you had something, you wouldn't get it again years later.
Herpesviridae - Shingles
(Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Treatment:
No Treatment
Reduce symptoms
Nothing to do, nowhere to go...
Herpesviridae - Shingles
(Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Control:
Vaccine can relieve symptoms
I want to be vaccinated against everything.
Herpesviridae - Shingles
(Zosters) (V-Z Virus)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE
Herpesviridae (Cytomegalovirus infections) CMV Virus
Causes Cellulitis
Cyto (cell)
Megalo (large)
Really big
Herpesviridae: (Cytomegalovirus infections) CMV Virus
Symptoms:
a. Mild infections
b. Asymptomatic in most adults
c. 50% of the US is infected at one time (estimate)
d. Complications occur in newborns - spleen enlargement, reduced liver function, nerve damage in the eye, may cause death, livers don't function properly.
Bad news for babies.
Herpesviridae: (Cytomegalovirus infections)
CMV Virus
Transmission:
A. STD
B. Birthing process
C. Can be aerosol
No sex, no babies, lysol
Herpesviridae:
(Cytomegalovirus infections)
CMV Virus
Treatment:
Interferon - an anti-viral drug
Interfers with virus
Herpesviridae:
(Cytomegalovirus infections)
CMV Virus
Control:
No control
Avoid exposure
A monastery may be the answer.


Herpesviridae:
(Cytomegalovirus infections)
CMV Virus
Characteristics:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis
(Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Symptoms:
a. Very wide spread
b. Infection in lymphatic system and salivary tissue
c. Slow developing - make take weeks
d. Fever, sore throat, rash is frequently seen
wide, deep, slow and sore
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis
(Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Complications:
a. Liver complications are what to be watched out for.
b. First sign is jaundice
c. Burkitts Lymphoma (bone cancer in the jaw) Death rate is very high
Watch out for these complications.
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Transmission:
Any contact with saliva:
kissing, spoons, glasses, etc.
Don't kiss me or drink after me. (Not that you would anyway, we haven't even been introduced)
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Treatment:
No Treatment
Relieve Symptoms
A nunnery may be another answer.
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis
(Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Control:
a. isolation
b. Feed patient with throwaway utensils
c. no blood donations
I feel like a pariah.
Herpesviridae: Mononucleosis
(Epstein-Barr Virus) - EBV
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Enveloped
DDPE
Hepadnaviridea - Serum hepatitis - Hepatitis B (HBV)
Symptoms:
a. Incubation can be months
b. Fever, arthritic pain, liver complications causing jaundice
b. Rash
c. Complications, in chronic cases. liver cancer can develop.
You won't even know how you caught it since it will have been so long ago.
Hepadnaviridea - Serum hepatitis - Hepatitis B (HBV)
Transmission:
a. Serum
b. Contact with blood of infected individuals
Aren't they testing for this nowadays before transfusions?
Hepadnaviridea - Serum
hepatitis - Hepatitis B (HBV)
Treatment:
Treat with Interferon (to relieve symptoms)
I hope it interfers with the virus.
Hepadnaviridea - Serum hepatitis - Hepatitis B (HBV)
Control:
Vaccine - Hep B Immunoglobulin
Avoid exposure
Vaccine named for the common name of the disease.
Hepadnaviridea - Serum
hepatitis - Hepatitis B (HBV)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Shape: Double
Strandness: Complex
Envelope: Enveloped
DDCE
Adenoviridae - Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye(Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Over 80 strains of this one.
Lots of them
Adenoviridae - Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye(Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Symptoms:
a. Runny nose
b. Watery eyes
c. Cold-like symptoms
d. causes crusting of cornea as it advances
e. for the most part, it is harmless
I still don't want this one, even if it is considered mild.
Adenoviridae - Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye(Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Transmission:
Close contact
Aerosols
Avoid everything and everyone
Adenoviridae - Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye (Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Treatment:
No Treatment
Relieve symptoms
Nothing here (that's a hint -not a declaration of mental capacity).
Adenoviridae - Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye (Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Control:
Vaccine that is mostly limited to military personnel
Join the Army (or Marines, Navy, Air Force)
Adenoviridae -
Keratoconjunctivitis - Pink Eye (Adenovirus 8 and 19)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strand: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
DDPN
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
40 Different strains
Lots of strains, but not as many as the Adenovirus.
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Symptoms:
a. Crusty structure on skin
b. Invades skin membranes
c. #1 sexually transmitted disease
d. 6,000,000 known cases (probably double or triple is more accurate) (These are per year).
Reminds me of the wicked witch. I wonder if she were sexually active?
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Symptoms continued: (Depending upon type)
a. Common (seed warts) - small, flat and common among children.
b. Planter (deeper into tissue and typically around feet)
c. Genital (invades mucous membranes and can mass together in larger clumps.
In females, can grow internally and go unnoticed and can link to cervical cancer.
Three types of warts and none are acceptable to me.
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Transmission:
Any direct contact
Sexual transmission
Don't touch me
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Treatment:
Removal of warts (freeze, laser, surgical (particularly with cervical warts)
Don't try this at home.
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Control:
Regress with time (sometimes takes years)
Vaccine - experimental
Oh, I have no life anyway other than school.
Papovaviridae - Warts or verruca (Human Pipillomavirus (HPV)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Double
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
DDPN
Parvoviridae - Erythema infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Fairly common childhood disease
Ah, to be a kid again.
Parvoviridae - Erythema infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Symptoms:
a. Low fever
b. Rash on cheeks - mild
c. Complications - can be passed to fetus; can cause anemias in fetus; can cause spontaneous abortions
Well, maybe I don't want to be a kid again afterall.
Parvoviridae - Erythema
infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Transmission:
Aerosols
No sneezing please.
Parvoviridae - Erythema infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Treatment:
No Treatment
Relieve Symptoms
The grandmother thing again.
Parvoviridae - Erythema infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Control:
None
Come on - think of something I can avoid.
Parvoviridae - Erythema infectiosom - Human Parvovirus B19 (HPV 19)
Classification:
Nucleic Acid: DNA
Strandness: Single
Shape: Polyhedral
Envelope: Naked
DSPN