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59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many human hepatitis viruses are there?
8 Hepatits Viruses
what family does HAV belong to?
Piconaviridae
what family does HBV belong to?
Hepadnavidine
What family does HCV belong to?
Flaviviridae
what family does HEV belong to?
Calciviridae
what family does HGV belong to?
Flaviviridae
what is another name that HAV is known by?
infectious hepatitis A
describe the biological structure of HAV
naked
capsid
belongs to Picornavirida
(+) ssRNA
what is the incubation period for HAV?
one month
Is hepatitis A an acute or chronic infection?
Acute
Is HAV fatal?
NO
describe the clinical findings of HAV.
immune system damages liver
abrupt onset of symptoms
4-6 days before jaundice appears
Fever, fatigue, nausea, loss of apetite, abdominal pain
How is HAV shed?
shed virus in feces before jaundice appears and after symptoms resolve
what are common sources of HAV outbreaks?
contaminated water, food, shell fish, day care centers
how is HAV diagnosed?
time course of symptoms & confirmed by lab
-Serology is used to detect anti-HAV IgM in blood
Is there an antiviral drug fro HAV?
NO
How do you prevent HAV?
prevent infection by adequate hygiene and clean drinking water
Is there a vaccine for HAV?
killed vaccine available for travelers, relief workers, in endemic areas and required for school children
what family does HEV belong to?
Calcivirus (Norwalk like group)
describe the biological structure of HEV.
(+) ss-RNA
non-segmented
Icosohedral
how is HEV transmitted?
fecal oral route
True or False
HEV has a high mortality rate
TRUE
True/False
HEV is a very common disease in developed countries
False
It is a very rare disease in developed countries
what liver enzymes do the Hepatitis group of viruses disrupt?
AST: aspartate transaminase
ALT: alanine transaminase
Is HBV an enveloped virus?
YES
Is HBV a durable virus?
YES
what type of genome does HBV have?
dsDNA Enveloped Icoshedral Circular genome
how does HBV replicate?
through an RNA intermediate
What are the HBV antigens that are important in diagnosis in serology?
core Antigen: HBcAg surrounds genome & nucleoprotein
surface Antigen: HBsAg made of 3 viral glycoproteins-found in the envelope surrounding viron
enveloped Ag: HBeAg: useful in serology
is HBV a direct pathology?
NO
-caused by a cell-mediated immunity
-immune system causes inflammation
Is HBV an acute or chronic infection?
it can be either depending on immune response to infection
describe an acute HBV infection
long incubation period, with gradual onset
fever, malasia, anorexia, nausea, vomitting, abdominal discomfort, chills, jaundice, dark urine, pale stool
Antibody: HBsAg complex can cause hypersensitivity reaction
describe a chronic HBV infection
may be asymptomatic carriers
liver enzyme abnormalities
-increased ASL & ALT
progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure
Describe Primary Hepatocellular carcinoma
HBV is responsible for 80% of cases
-chronic infection 9-35 years before PHC develops
caused by chronic infection that is causing continual liver repair which can lead to cancer
HBV integrates into chromosomal DNA and may change cell growth regulation
How is HBV spread?
-blood, milk, semen, saliva, vaginal and intestinal secretions, amniotic fluid
-close contact
-latent virus presents in hepatocytes
How is HBV diagnosed?
clinical symptoms
increased liver enzymes
Serology confirmation
If a patient had a serology test come back with HBcAb (IgM) what would this indicate?
recent acute infection
If a patient had a serology test come back with HBsAg or HBeAb what would this indicate?
chronic infection
had infection for greater than 6 months and there are no antibodies present
If a serology test came back with HBsAb what does this indicate?
resolved infection
what does a serology test with HBeAg indicate?
infectious virus present
what is the HBsAg window?
HBsAg or HBsAb cannot be detected
what would you use for treatment of HBV?
alpha interferon
reverse transcriptase inhibitors
what are some drugs that can be used to treat HBV?
Lamirudine & Adeforvir (HIV)
Entecavir
Telbivadine
-these are reverse transcriptase inhibitors
describe the biological structure of HCV.
enveloped (+) ssRNA
Flaviviridae family
describe the Path & Clinical Syndromes
attaches to CD81 cell surface receptors
coats itself in LDL and is taken up by receptor mediated endocytosis into hepatocytes
remains cell associated
what can happen with an HCV infection?
recover and clear virus
or
remain chronically infected
how is HCV diagnosed?
elevated liver enzymes
confirmed by serology using ELISA
detection of antibodies against viral proteins
How is HCV treated?
alpha-interferon
Ribravanan + alpha interferon
NO VACCINE AVAILABLE
what disease does HGV cause?
NANBHV
how is HGV transmitted?
in the blood
Is HGV a chronic or acute disease?
CHRONIC INFECTION
how is HGV detected?
detected by reverse transcriptase, PCR, differentiation from HCV
what family does HGV belong to?
Flaviviridae
Can HDV cause disease by itself?
NO
requires HBV helper virus
what does the envelope of HDV contain?
envelope contains HBsAg
what disease is caused by an infection of both HDV and HBV?
fulminate hepatitis
causes massive hepatic necrosis
high fatality rate
How is HDV diagnosed?
direct detection of delta antigen in blood
what is found in the serology test for HDV?
detect specific antibodies against HDV using ELISA/RIA
Is there a treatment or vaccine for HDV?
NO antiviral drugs
NO vaccine available