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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Why are Arboviruses called Arboviruses?
Arthropod-borne viruses
Why are Roboviruses called Roboviruses?
Rodent-borne viruses
An insect can itself be a reservoir of Arbovirus if:
Transovarial transmission occurs
What are three Arbovirus disease symptoms?
Flu-like symptoms
Haemorrhagic fever
What type of virus is West Nile virus (WNV)?
An arthropod-borne flavivirus
What are some clinical features of West Nile?
1. Mild infection
2. Severe infection
-1 in 150 infections result in
severe neurological disease
The most significant risk factor for developing West Nile virus induced severe neurological disease is:
Advanced age
What is the most efficient method of WNV detection?
IgM antibody to WNV in serum or CSF
Why do local measures to control the spread of Japanese encephalitis fail?
The transmission cycle involves the Culex mosquito which has a flight range of 20 km
Describe the forms of the Yellow fever virus
Jungle YF
-the natural reservoir of the disease involving primates and forest mosquitoes
- humans may become incidentally infected upon venturing into jungle

Urban YF- transmitted between humans by Aedes aegypti
Why if given the choice, would you probably rather not have Yellow fever?
GI hemorrhage leads to “black vomit” and 50% of patients with frank YF die
What is the biggest Arbovirus problem in the world today?
There are how many Dengue serotypes?
4 Dengue serotypes
How do human Dengue infections arise?
From human-Aedes mosquito-human
How do severe cases of Dengue present?
With HF and shock with a mortality of 5-10% (Dengue HF or Dengue shock syndrome)
Severe cases of Dengue are seen most often in which patients?
Previously infected with a different serotype, suggesting an immunopathogenic mechanism
The Togaviruses carried by mosquitoes include which viruses that cause flu-like symptoms that can progress to encephalitis:
Equine encephalitis viruses
What is the most important cause of pediatric arbovirus encephalitis in the U.S.?
La Crosse Virus
Name a rodent-borne Bunyavirus
The multi-system pathology of Hantavirus Disease (HVD) is characterized by:
Damage to capillaries and small vessel walls, resulting in vasodilation and congestion with hemorrhages
Classically Hantavirus consists of 5 distinct phases:
Febrile phase
Hypotensive phase
Oliguric phase - may include renal failure and shock
Diuretic phase
Convalescent phase
What virus can cause serious hemorrhagic disease due to infection of the vascular endothelium?
Colorado Tick Fever Virus
Can you guess how Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) differs from Hantavirus Disease?
Damage to capillaries occurs predominantly in the lungs rather than the kidney
How are robovirus infections frequently spread
By urine/feces via inhalation
What are the two main disease types caused by Arboviruses
Viral encephalitis and Fevers/VHF
What are some basic characteristics of Arboviruses and Roboviruses
All are RNA viruses
Most are enveloped
What are the four main arthropod vectors of Arboviruses
Aedes mosquito
Culex mosquito
Infection with what should be strongly considered in adults older than 50 who develop unexplained encephalitis or meningitis in summer or early fall
WNV, or other arboviral diseases such as St. Louis encephalitis
Why does IgM antibody in CSF strongly suggest central nervous system infection
IgM antibody does not cross the blood-brain barrier