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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which viruses represent the most important agents of respiratory infections in both infants and young children?
Describe the genome of Paramyxoviruses
Helical nucleocapsid containing ss(-) RNA genome and nucleocapsid (NP) protein
The Paramyxovirus envelope derived from cell plasma membrane contains what three viral proteins
M Matrix protein
HN Hemagglutin-neuraminidase glycoprotein
F Fusion glycoprotein
What is the function of the Paramyxovirus M protein
The matrix protein lies under the membrane and aids in virus budding
What is the function of the Paramyxovirus HN protein
The hemaglutin-neuraminidase glycoprotein is responsible for attachment to sialic acid-containing receptors
What is the function of the Paramyxovirus F protein
The fusion glycoprotein. It must be cleaved by cellular proteases to exhibit fusion activity and for the virion to be infectious
At what pH does the Paramyxovirus envelope fuse with cell membrane, releasing nucleocapsid and polymerase proteins into cytoplasm?
At neutral or alkaline pH
What do all 5 Paramyxovirus serotypes cause?
Local infections of the respiratory tract
What disease do RSV and hPIV3 account for
~30% of severe viral respiratory tract disease leading to hospitalization of infants and children
What is the major syndrome caused by Parainfluenza type 1 and 2
What is the major syndrome caused by PIV 3
Bronchiolitis Pneumonia
What is the major syndrome caused by PIV 4
What is the major syndrome caused by RSV
Bronchiolitis Pneumonia
What is the MOST important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children and will infect virtually all infants by age 2
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
What type of infection is mumps?
Mumps is a systemic infection with long incubation period (3 weeks)
Unlike most Togaviruses, Rubella virus has no known invertebrate host, and the known natural reservoir for Rubella virus is:
What does MOP stand for in terms of the complications/manifestations of mumps?
Aseptic Meningitis
Why does mumps infection confer lifelong immunity?
There is only one serotype worldwide and infection is systemic
Besides mumps, what is another systemic Paramyxovirus infection?
Measles virus
What bunch of letters is associated with a measles infection?
3 C’s of measles infection:
Why is the measles incubation period noteworthy?
Measles has a long incubation period (about two weeks)
What is a characteristic clinical symptom of measles
Koplik's spots
How can measles virus replicate in lymphoid tissue and convert previously positive tuberculin tests to negatives?
Measles infection is immunosuppressive
Is Rubella a Paramyxovirus
No, Rubella virus is a Togavirus
What disease is Rubella the cause of?
Congenital Rubella Syndrome- a very serious gestational infection with dire consequences for fetal development
What is the most prominent feature of Rubella infection and the first manifestation of the disease in about 95% of all cases?
Clinically apparent rubella is characterized by any combination of symptoms that include:
Maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, sore throat, and arthralgia
Who is the Rubella vaccine primarily for?
Rubella vaccine is for the benefit of the unborn, not the vaccine recipient
How can a definitive diagnosis of rubella be made?
Only by specific laboratory studies including virus isolation or demonstration of seroconversion
What are the characteristics of the Paramyxoviruses
Single-stranded negative non-segmented RNA
What are some common diseases caused by Paramyxoviruses
Upper and lower respiratory tract infections
Neurological diseases (less common)
How is viral replication of Paramyxoviruses detected
Cell fusion immunofluorescence
Reverse transcriptase based PCR
Giant cell pneumonia can be caused by what virus
Measles virus
What two viruses account for approximately 30% of severe viral respiratory tract disease leading to hospitalization of infants and children
RSV and hPIV3
What is unique about the RSV glycoprotein G
It contains neither hemagglutinin (HA) nor neuraminidase (NA) activity
What are some complications of mumps viremia
Aseptic meningitis; Meningoencephalitis no sequelae; Unilateral nerve deafness Epididymoorchitis, usually unilateral, usually not causing sterility.

Mumps virus was the most common cause of encephalitis in the U.S. until 1975.
What does the development of measles rash depend on
Cell mediated immunity. Patients with reduced CMI do not develop rash, but will develop measles giant cell pneumonia
What are some complications of measles
Post-infectious encephalomyelitis; 10-30% fatality with 40% of survivors showing sequelae including seizures or mental retardation.
Bacterial super infection with otitis media, bacterial pneumonia occurs in 15% of measles cases.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalopathy (SSPE) is very rare (ranging from 1/100,000 - 1/1,000,000).
Virus persists in neurons causing fatal CNS disease years later.
What are some characteristics of the Togoviridae Rubella virus
Single-stranded positive non-segmented RNA
In regards to a fetus, what is the major problem with Rubella virus
It is highly teratogenic, and when Rubella virus infects a woman during the first trimester there is a high probability that the baby will suffer congenital abnormalites
What are some viral causes of maculopapular rash
Parvovirus B19
Measles and the measles vaccine
Coxsackievirus A9, 16, B5
Echoviruses 4, 9, 16
What are some virus that cause Vesicular/papular rash
Herpes simplex viruses
Molluscum contagiosum
Coxsackievirus group A members (HFMD)
What are some viruses that cause Petechial or purpuric rash
Coxsackievirus group A
What type of vaccine is used for mumps and measles
Live attenuated vaccine