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48 Cards in this Set

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What are some diseases that Herpesviruses are responsible for
Herpes simplex (fever blister)
Herpes zoster (chicken pox and shingles)
Infectious mononucleosis
Burkitt's lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Childhood exanthema
Kaposi's sarcoma
Pleural effusion lymphoma
What virus family can be identified by the presence of double-stranded DNA in the core of the virion, and an icosahedral capsid containing 162 capsomeres assembled in the nucleus. The outer envelope is derived from nuclear membrane of the host. Relatively unstable at room temperature
Herpesvirus family
What three viruses are in the Herpesvirus alpha group
HSV-1 Herpes simplex virus
HSV-2
VZV Varicella-zoster virus
What three Herpesviruses are in the Beta group
CMV cytomegalovirus
HHV-6 Human herpesvirus
HHV-7
What two Herpesviruses are in the gamma group
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
KSHV/HHV-8 Kaposis's sarcoma herpes virus or human herpes virus 8
What Herpesvirus group has variable host range, relatively short reproductive cycle and is effective in the destruction of the infected cells. They also establish latency primarily in sensory ganglia
Alpha group
What herpesvirus group has a restricted host range, with a long reproductive cycle and the infected cells are frequently enlarged
Beta group
What Herpesvirus group efficiently infects lymphocytes and frequently enters latency after infection, resulting in the transformation of the cells
Gamma group
What does the herpesvirus tegument do
It contains a trans-activator which turns on immediate early genes
What virus causes labial lesions (cold sores), skin lesions, keratitis, and encephalitis
HSV-1
What virus causes genital lesions, severe diseases in neonates, during pregnancy, and in immunocompromised patients
HSV-2
What virus causes chicken pox (primary) and shingles or zoster (recurrence)
VZV
What virus is a major cause of birth defects (mental retardation), deafness, causes mononucleosis-like syndrome and causes retinitis, colitis and life-threatening pneumonitis in immunosuppressed patients
HCMV
What virus causes infectious mononucleosis and has a strong associating with Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disorders--polyclonal or monoclonal B-cell lymphoma (in immunosuppressed hosts), also hairy oral leukoplakia, a productive infection
EBV
What two viruses cause roseola infantum
HHV-6
HHV-7
What virus is a simian virus indigenous to Asian monkeys that can result in fatal encephalopathy in humans
Herpes simiae (Herpes B)
Do all herpesviruses establish latency
Yes
What virus docks by first binding to heparan sulfate molecules on the cell surface, then viral glycoproteins on the envelope associate with cell surface proteins, resulting in fusion of the virus envelope to the cellular membrane and entry of the capsid
HSV
What is the cell receptor for EBV
CD21. Binding of EBV to cell surface receptors can induce cell signaling and activation which facilitates expression of cellular genes required for transcription, DNA replication, and virus production
What is the temporal organization in replication and temporal transcription of HSV
Immediate early genes (alpha) are expressed before the onset of protein synthesis, and delayed early (Beta) genes and late (gamma) genes, which require protein synthesis for their expression.
Alpha gene products turn on Beta gene products, which in turn activate gamma gene expressions, but at the same time shut off alpha gene expressions
What does the VP16 component of HSV do
It serves as a transciptional factor to turn on alpha gene products
What is unique about immediate early mRNA expression in Herpesviruses
It requires no viral protein synthesis and proceeds in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors
What type of proteins do delayed early genes usually encode
Proteins that are involved in DNA replication
What type of genes are conserved in all herpesviruses
Delayed early genes
Where does Herpesvirus assembly take place
In the nucleus of the infected cells
What viral gene product can switch the EBV from latent to lytic
Zebra or Zta. It is a trans-activator and may be a useful anti-viral target to prevent reactivation of EBV
Where is HSV latency established
Neurons. Virus enters axon and undergoes retrograde transport to the neuron's nucleus
Where does HSV-1 latency occur
Neurons in trigeminal and cervical ganglia
Where does HSV-2 latency occur
Neurons in sacral ganglia
Where does VZV latency occur
Neurons and non-neuronal cells in sensory ganglia, trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia
Where does EBV latency develop
B-lymphocytes
Where does CMV latency occur
Monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells
Where does HHV-6 latency occur
Monocytes, CNS, Salivary glands
Where does HHV-8 latency occur
B-cells, vascular endothelial cells/spindle cells (KS tumors), prostate glands, saliva
What are some things that can induce Herpes virus latency reactivation
Tissue injuries, hormones, stress, and temperature, most likely via a transcriptional switch
How is HSV-1 transmitted
Close personal contact (mucosal surfaces/abraded skin)
How is HSV-2 transmitted
Close personal contact, sex
How is VZV transmitted
Airborne respiratory droplets, contact with lesional skin
How is CMV transmitted
During child delivery (perinatal infection), through breast feeding, close personal contacts, blood transfusion, organ transplantation
Primary infection during the first six months of pregnancy poses the greatest danger to the fetus via transplacental infection
How is EBV transmitted
Salivary exchange, respiratory aerosols
How is HHV-6 transmitted
Intra-familial, mother to child, saliva
How is KSHV/HHV-8 transmitted
Sexual intercourse, whole blood transfusion, organ transplantation
How does Acyclovir prevent Herpes infection
Viral Thymidine kinase phosphorylates it, where it becomes ACG-ppp and inhibits viral DNA polymerase
What is Acyclovir used for
Recurrent HSV and VZV infection
What antiviral is used in life-threatening CMV infection in immune-compromised patients
Ganciclovir. It may cause neutropenia and thrombocytopenia
What do Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) and Phosphonofomate (PFA, Foscarnet) inhibit
Herpes DNA polymerase
What is Foscarnet used for
HSV and CMV infection
What two Herpes viruses don't have effective therapies available
EBV and HHV-8/KSHV