Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/112

Click to flip

112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what group does NOT get influenza?
ruminants.
what 2 things does the flu virus have an affinity for on a cellular level?
mucopolysaccharides

glycoproteins w/ sialic acid
what are the 2 surface membrane glycoproteins and which is a target for NAs?
hemagglutinin and neuraminidase

H is the target
how does the flu virus encode it's 8 proteins?
segment splicing
what are the 2 functions of hemagglutinin?
VAP

uncoating

***it's a virulence factor, stupid
what are the 2 functions of neuraminidase?
free progeny from cell

cleave sialic acid ie cut through mucus
what's the exception to the RNA replication in the cytoplasm?
flu.

eclipse period is in nucleus.
what happens if the cell doesn't have a protease for H?
it won't be active and the shit that's released won't be infective
major reason for flu virus recurrent infection?
antigenic diversity
at what level is the flu virus antigenic shift?
genetic NOT nucleotide
what antibodies fight the flu virus?
IgA
why are pigs considered a mixing vessel for bird flu viruses?
they have 2-3 and 2-6 linkages!
why don't bird flu strains normally infect people?
cell receptor specificity restriction
what does equine flu need to be differentiated from?
EHV-4
how often do you need to revaccinate for flu and why?
3-6 months cuz it's short lived
what's the strains of HPAI bird flu?
H5N1 AND H5N2
T/F waterfowl are the reservoir for bird flu but they are subclincal
true.
T/F bird flu can be shed in poop in addition to aerosol.
true.
T/F retroviruses usually kill cells they infect?
NOPE they are steady state
what should you think when retrovirus pops up?
persisent life-long infections that infect WBC
FeLV is what family of retrovirus? what's the v-onc status?
gamma

+
ALV/ASV and RSV are what family of retrovirus? v-onc status?
alpha

+
lentiviruses cause a ________ of_____________
chronic, slowly progressing disease

sheep, goats and horses
T/F endogenous retroviruses are usually NON pathogenic and replication defective
true.
T/F exogenous retroviruses are the nasty ones.
true. duh.
why do retroviruses (ssRNA) use a dsDNA intermediate?
survival advantage
what are NAs against retroviruses attacking?
VAPs aka envelope glycoproteins
which retrovirus is delta and what's the v onc status?
BLV

negative!
between FeLV and FeSV which is v-onc positive and replication defective?
FeSV
what does FOCMA stand for and what does it do?
feline oncovirus associated cell membrane antigen

induces ADCC
what are the 2 cell tropisms for retroviruses?
WBC stem cells

thrombocytes
what will be the anti-FOCMA titer with an immuno responding animal to a retrovirus? is this animal shedding?
low!

nope.
what should you think when you think of poxviruses?
skin lesions and zoonotic
what species is in orthopoxvirus?
cowpox
what 2 species is in parapoxvirus?
orf (contagious pustular dermatitis)

pseudocowpox virus
how many molecules make up poxviridae?
1
are enveloped or nonenveloped poxviruses infectious?
both!
where do poxviruses replicate and why ?
cytoplasm! even though it's DNA because it's so freaking big.
where do poxviruses get their envelope?
the golgi.
with systemic pox infection, what is the usual route of transmission?
respiratory.
what's the animal reservoir for pox?
none.
which pox is reportable?
camelpox
what pox virus causes contagious pustular dermatitis or sore mouth or scabby mouth?
orf.
what's the reservoir for cowpox? is it local or systemic
rodents

local
what do "milker's nodules" come from?
pseudocowpux
what do the hexamers and pentamers determine for adenoviruses?
hexamers = genus specific epitopes (aka mammal or avian)

pentamers = species specific
what do the 12 fibers on an adenovirus do?
species specificity and serotypes and initial attachment
what scientific use do adenoviruses have?
used as vectors cuz they're studied a lot.
T/F adenoviruses usually remain localized.
true.
what's the primary reason for adenovirus vaccine failure?
colostrum aka maternal antibodies
what kind of infection do adenoviruses lead to?
persistently productive subclinical
are adenoviruses species specific?
hella
what does CAV-1 cause? what does it resemble and how is it an exception?
infectious canine hepatitis

distemper.

it's systemic unlike most adenoviruses
why are adenoviral vax tough to get? which actually work?
too many serotypes

CAV-1 is good.
although enveloped, what should you know about the hardiness of __________?
asfarviridae can live for years in frozen meat. also loves to chillin pee, poo and blood.

have a crazy pH stable range (4-13) so normal disinfectants don't work
although a DNA virus, where does it asfarvirus replicate and why?
cytoplasm because huge like pox!
what's the cell tropism for asfarviridae?
lymphoreticular tissue
3 ways to get asfarviridae?
soft ticks!!!!

aerosol

oral
what's special about the transmission of asfarviridae?
it's the only DNA virus that's an arbovirus!
what's the ELISA look like for asfarviridae host response?
HIGH for NON neutralizing abs

virus neutralization test would be NEGATIVE
what's up with asfarvirus vax?
nah, there an extremely high nonneutralizing Ab response!
what should you differentiate asfarvirus from?
hog cholera
which herpes go latent? in who?
all of them.

usually only their natural host.
what is the cell tropism for alphaherpes and where is it latent and what do they do to cells and whats the time frame of the disease?
mucosal epithelium (cold sores) and latent in neurons

cytolytic. acute and persistent
which herpes yields cytomegalia?
beta.
what's the cell tropism for betaherpes? there's 3
secretory glands

lymphoreticular tissue

kidneys
which herpes has a variable animal host range (as opposed to restricted for the other 2)
alpha
what are the 2 genera of gammaherpes and what's the virus you have to know in one of them?
lymphocryptovirus

rhadinovirus (bovine malignant catarrhal fever from alcelahine HV-1)
what kind of diseases for gammaherpes?
lymphoproliferative!! B or T cells
where do herpes get their envelope?
inner lamellae of nuclear membrane
what are the 4 virus-cell interactions for herpes ie 4 possible outcomes? can a virus do more than 1?
cytolysis

syncytia

latency

transformation

yes.
what does betaherpes do to adults vs neonates?
respiratorr/repro in adults

systemic in neonates
whats the shedding pattern for herpes?
continuous EXCEPT alpha which is intermittent
what's the 1 cell tropism for gammaherpes?
lymphoid tissue
which herpes is lacto and hemogenic meaning transmission via?
beta
what's the big 6 alphaherpes you have to know?
bovine (BHV-1) -> infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
pseudorabies
Equine 1 and 4
feline herpes
avian laryngotrachieis (Gallid 1)
Marek's disease (galld 2+3)
what does PrV yield?
pseudorabies!
what 2 assays can detect PrV?
ELISA and SN
what's the shedding pattern for alphaherpes as opposed to the other 2?
periodic!!!!!
what are the 3 parvo genera?
parvovirus

erythrovirus

dependovirus
what 3 species get parvo we need to know?
feline panleukopenia (FPV)

dogs

pigs
what does erythrovirus infect?
erythrocyte PREcursors
what do you need to know about dependovirus?
it's replication defective
how does parvo do in the environment?
great

stable for a year

pH 3-9 stable
what's up with parvo and S phase?
it does NOT induce it because it lacks the coding capacity.
what's the parvo cell tropism?
rapidly dividing cells like crypt and leukocytes
what's are 4 specific places parvo goes to get to those fast dividing leukocytes?
thymus, spleen, LNs and bone marrow
where is the primary replication for parvo?
pharyngeal lymphoid tissue
T/F parvo is always systemic
true.
what's the big helper against parvo?
colostrum aka maternal antibodies!
how do you kill parvo?
1:30 bleach
which species get papillomas?
all of them!
what's the 2 cell tropisms for papillomavirus?
integument

GI + urogenital mucosa
what are the non-permissive and permissive cells for papillomavirus?
non are basal/dermal layers hence where the papillomas grow

permissive are keratinizing (outermost) skin cells
how many cells make up a papilloma wart?
1
what's the humoral response to papilloma virus and what becomes of it?
Abs made, but they don't do shit probably because the virus is tough to get at where it is.
how host and tissue specific are pap viruses?
VERY for BOTH!
where do you seldom see papillomas?
legs.
how are pap viruses of economic importance?
moocows

lower growth, milk, hide value
where does pap virus like to give you cancer?
lower GIT and bladder
what's the recurrence rate of papillomas once they're gone?
usually zilch.
how do you disinfect papillomavirus?
1:30 bleach
what are the 3 genera of rhabdoviruses and which has the rabies virus in it?
lyssavirus **rabies**

vesiculovirus

ephemerovirus
what's the important vesiculovirus disease?
vesicular stomatitis!
what's the definition between variant and ecotype?
variant = antigenic and genotype relatedness

ecotype = host and reservoirs
T/F the envelope is required for VSV or BEFV infection (non rabies rhabdo)
false!! hence they are more stable!
what are the 5 rhabdovirus proteins?
G

M

L

P

N
which rhabdovirus does shuts down cellular biosynthesis as opposed to the other 2 that don't?
VSV does.

rabies doesn't mind you!
which virus group involves DI particles?
rhabdo
what's the cell tropism for VSV and rabies?
VSV = epithelium

rabies - neurons
what are the neutralizing Abs against for the rabies immune response?
the G protein
T/F even in the absence of neutralizing antibodies thereis still an immune response against the RNP complex of rhabdovirus
true!