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24 Cards in this Set

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Viral genomes are small so to accomodate they do what??
maximize the information content strategies.
How do they maximize the info cantent?
1)Overlapping of genes.(parvo)
2)Poly proteins-->single large
Polypeptide--> internally cleaved to release function proteins. (Herpes)
In RNA viruses + strand is __ __.
Directly translated-->Protein(use host ribosomes)
In RNA viruses - strand is used as a ??
Template to make + strand RNA
What happens in - strand RNA viruses?
1)Viral RNa-dependent on RNA pol to make + strand
2)Processed as either mRNa and then translated into protein or the + strand is used to make - strand.
How is the viral capdis formed?
1)Within the host cell
2)Viral proteins synthesized
3)Assembly of viral particle
4)Viral nucleic acid packaging into nucleocapsids
How is a viris released?
1)Direct with lysis of host
2)Budding->host membrane envelopes virus(involvement of endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi and cytoskeleton)
What are the 7 possible cytocidal outcomes due to viral infections?
1)Inhibition of host nucleic acid and protein synthesis
2)Lysosome Damage->Toxic contents released
3)Damage to host plasma membrane(may result in immune attack on host cell)
4)Toxicity from high viral protein load.
5)Viral proteins may aggregate(w/or w/out host proteins) forming inclusion bodies.
6)chromosomal disruptions(retroviruses)
7)Occurrance of cancer
How can the occurance of cancer happen due to a virus?
1)if viral genome carries on cogens.
2)Viral disruption of oncogene suppressors.
What is HIV?
Human Immunodeficiency virus
->Lent virus with family retrovirdae
->Evolved in primoter "Simion Viruses"
Who is in risk of contracting HIV?
Virtually everyone is a risk
How is HIV carried?
Body fluids(saliva, blood and breat milk)
who is in high risk of getting HIV?
Homos, heteros, hemophiliocs;intravanous drug users.
1 in __ college students are infected with HIV
What are the characteristics of the HIV virus?
4)Proteins(Reverse transcriptase, integrase, protease)
What does GP120 do?
On viral surface it facilitates interaction with CD4 receptor on host cell surface.(CD4 on 'T' cells)
What are the steps that HIV does?
1)GP120 on viral surface facilitates interaction with CD4 receptor on host cell surface.
2)Membrane fusion
4)Uncoating(release viral nucleic acid)
5)Reverse transcriptase;RNAase H activities)
6)Formation of ds DNA.
7)Moblization into nucleus.
8)Viral integrase activity(provirus formed)
9)Viral mRNA generated.
10)Viral structured proteins.
11)Viral assemble
12)Budding and release as viral encoded protease.
What are the outcomes of infection of HIV?
AIDS-related complex, fever;weight loss;lymph node enlargement, antibodies to HIV
AIDS dementia
AIDS related cancer
What is AIDS dementia?
Central nervous central system damage
What is an example of aids related cancer?
Karzosi's sarcoma.
How is HIV detected?
It is antibody based.
1)Viral particles
2)Viral antibody detection
How do you treat AIDS?
1)Nucleotide analogs(Azothymidine-toxic to host and host nucleic acid polymerasees affected) to interfere with reverse transcriptse activity.
2)Gene therapy-using mutant viral forms
Most AIDS related deaths are due to ??
secondary fungal and bacterial infections.
What are some examples of the secondary fungal and bacterial infections that kill AIDS patients?
1)Preumocystis corinii
2)Mycobacterium avium
3)Bacterial pneumonia.