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146 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what does ambiente mean?
lierally means enviornment
similar to the concept of terrior
explain the mezzadria syatem
prevailed through central and northern italy. Where the mezzadri (sharecropper) made a little wine for himself and turned the rest of his grapes and produce over as rent.
What is a fattoria
a central winery popular for production under the mezzadria system
Explain the latifondo sytem
a more oppresive sytem then the mezzadria in which workers had no vested interest in the land
popular in southern itialy
When was the doc drawn up and what does it mean
denominazione di origine controllata
is a designation of place name and production meathod
what is a cantina sociali
cooperative winery
What is vino da taglio
cutting wine
What is vino da tavola
table wine
May come from any grape from any area
many great wines here made from grapes not allowed under the DOC
Explain IGT
classification created in 1992
only indicates geographic area but production methods are not closely prescibed.
often grape variety is used
what is docg
Created along side the doc in 1963 it was not made official until 1980. The g stands for garantita "gauranteed" and is reserved for most exceptional and historic wines
Friuli's #1 white served to start most meals is?
tocai friulano
what kind of proscutti comes from friuli?
san daniele
what is an upcoming trend with friuli whites
The super-white
alot of times with chard blended in
what is the native variety of friuli responsible for it's sweet floral and honeyed wines
name the 6 major white grapes of friuli-venezia giulia
tocai friulano, pinot grigio, sauvignon, chardonnay, pinot bianco, picolit
5 major red grapes of friuli-venezia giulia
merlot, cab franc, cab sauv, refosco, and cabernet (franc, sauv cross) usually for blending
What is bistecca di cavallo and where in itialy would you have the best chance to find some?
horse steak
in veneto
Who is cosidered the father of the modern era of prosecco and why?
antonio carpene
first to develop the tank meathod in itialy
even though the town of prosecco is in friuli, what area is resposible for the majority of production?
which area is the largest producer of DOC wines?
what is the #1 grape of Soave
what are the 3 major white grapes of veneto
garganega, prosecco, and trebiano (trebbiano di soave, aromatic blending)(Trebbiano tuscano, workhorse for productivity)
Name the four major red grapes of veneto
corvina, rondonella, molinara, Cabernet
valpolicella is from what area and made with which grape
corvina - for backbone
rondonella - for aromatics
molinara - for acidity
what is the name of the rose produced from valpolicella
what is appassimento
process where grapes are left our to dry on straw mats to concentrate there sugars
expain recioto
sweet wine from veneto, process of appassimento is used but residual sugars are left behind. The predisessor to amarone
what are graticci
straw mats used to dry grapes in the process of appassimento
what is ripasso
the process in which vinidied valpolicella is poured over the skins and pulp left over from the amorone fermentation. This starts a secondary fermentation infusing tarry, spicy, and glycerol notes of amorone
what are 6 major white grapes of trentino - alto adige
gewurztraminer, pinot biano, chard, Sylvaner, muller-thurgau, Pinot grigio
what is "the ora"
a warm drying breeze that originates on lake garda and arrives in the adige valley every afternoon like clockwork
what do they call pinot noir in alto adige
pinot nero
what is the most widely planted grape in alto adige
often mixed with lambrusco for light tart reds
explain pergola trentina
vine training onto high canopies. Harvesters can walk underneath. Hight helps combat humidity. High productivity and dence canopy shades fruit to allow slower ripening
what is weissburgunder
pinot bianco
what is remuage
process of rotating bottles so that spent yeasts for the secondary fermentation collect in the neck of the bottle.
mechanical remuage is carried out by what machine
in the adige valley what fruit is almost as common as grapes
what is the capiol of friuli- venezia giulia
what is the Capitol of veneto
what is the Capitol of alto adige
what is the capitol of trentino
What is the Capitol of lombardia
where is gorgonzola from
small town east of Milan In lombardia
Franciacorta is where? And best known for what kind of wines?
In lombardia area makes sparkelers in the classic meathod with mostly chard, pinot Nero (noir), and Pinot blanc
A wine labeled saten would mean what?
wine is made from white grates in the cremant meathod
what is dosage
wine and sugar mixture added to spakeling wine to fill the neck and create final taste profile
in franciacorta the doc terre di franciacorta refers to what type of wines
flat whites . Typically chard
made in 1995 when franciacorta became a docg revering to sololy spakelers
name 4 major white grapes of lombardia
Chardonnay, garganega, Pinot bianco, Trebbiano di lugana (soave)
nearly extinct piedmontese grave
in lombardia name used as a synonym for croatina
the valtellina vinyards in lombardia are moderated by warm dry breezes that whisk through the adda valley off lake como called?
the breva winds
Name the 4 vinyards of the valtellina superiore docg
all named after a church or castle in the subzone . All different expressions of Nebbiolo
name 5 major lombardia red grapes
barbera, bonarda, nebbiolo (chiavennasca - a local subvariety), lambrusco, pinot noir
what is the capitol of valle d' aosta?
fontina cheese is from what area?
valle d' aosta
What is the most widely planted red grape in valle d'aosta?
petite rouge - used in torrette 70%
what white veriatal is grown in valle d'aosta but is better know in wines of the Swiss valais
petite arvine
name the four sea's that soround Italy
tyrhenian, axriadic, Ligurian, and Mediterranean
what is the main soil type of piedmont?
what type of soil is found in tuscany?
Some limestone mostly calcareous soils and schist
what are the 7 zones of chianti?
chianti classico, chianti rufina, chianti colli aretini, chianti colli fiorentini, chianti colli senesi, chianti colli pisane, chianti montalbano
What does the term riserva im reference to chianti mean?
aged in wood for 2 years
what is a "super-tuscan"?
wines made outside doc law
use of international grape varieties
mordern vinification techniques
often higher quality then doc
examples: sassicaia , tignanello(by antinori)
what grape is said to be where zinfandel originated
Which red grape varietal is said improve sicily's reputation?
nero d'avola (calabrese)
what is the #1 enviornmental threat to piedmonte
where is nutella produced?
in alba, piedmonte
what is the average size of a borolo/barbaresco vineyard
5 acres
how many DOC's are there in piedmonte
what is the differnce between Asti spumante and moscato d'asti
moscato d'asti is frizzante (semisparkling) where as Asti spumante is fully sparkeling. D'asti also has fermentation stopped erlier so will be softer plumper sweeter and less alchohol. Spumante crisper and more aromatic.
what type of climate is piedmote
continetal / except for the southeast white region of gavi which could be considered maritime from mediterranian breazes blowing through liguria
what is the capital of piedmonte
what are the 5 main white grapes of piedmonte
arnies, cortese, erbaluce, moscato, and chardonnay
what are the 4 main red grapes of piedmonte
barbera, brachetto, dolcetto, and nebbiolo
what is la nebbia
fog that descends on the hills of barolo and barbaresco every fall. What nebbiolo is named after
what does vino fresco mean
fresh wine bottled soon after vintage for immediate sale
what is a nome di fantasia
fantacy name
what does dolcetto mean?
Little sweet one
what are aging requirements for barbaresco
minimum of 2 years with one of which must be spent in oak or chestnut barrels
riserva = four years minimum
these are base off the year following the harvest
what are aging requirements for barolo's
minimum of 3 years with 2 in oak or chestnut barrels
5 years for riserva
these are based off the following the harvest
angelo Gaja owns what vinyard in barbaresco, what are the 3 cru's of the vinyard, and what doc does he sell his wines under
the secondine vinyard is broken into 3 cru's sori tildin, sori San lorenzo, and costa russi. All are on southern slopes of barbaresco but Gaja abandoned the docg for his cru wines which are now labled langhe doc.
the brachetto grape of piedmonte makes what type of wins
both still and sparkling red dolci wines
rose scented with hints of strawberry on the palate
Northeast Italy
Bordered by the Dolomites to the north and the Adriatic Sea to the south.
Varied. High quality production from very modern vinification. See individual appellations for wine styles
• After the advent of phylloxera the most available plant material was French, so Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, and Pinot Gris have a history in this part of Italy.
Climate: Similar to Northwest Italy (summers are hot, winters are cold and harsh), but fog is less of a problem and hail is more frequent.
Soil Type(s): Most vineyards are on a glacial moraine, a gritty mixture of sand, gravel, and sediment. Most are clayey or sandy clay and the best sites are often marly and rich in calcium.
Practices and Special Issues: This area spearheaded a revival in Italian winemaking in recent years. Increased planting densities and use of international varieties. The success of Pinot Grigio triggered a widespread planting of white grapes
• This area spearheaded a revival in Italian winemaking in recent years. Began with white wines: cold fermentations, yeast selections. Very modern vinification techniques. In the 1970s even the large cooperatives moved towards quality production.
• Ripasso: Used primarily in Veneto for Valpolicella.
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Area benefits from contrasting influences of the Alps and Adriatic. More red is produced but whites are better known with a better reputation. Varietal labeling is common. Crisp, fruity whites. Rarely oak aged. 20 grapes are permitted, a combination of locals and imports. Many imported grapes were planted after phylloxera (especially Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot). Also takes cultural and culinary clues from Austria and Slovenia. This is also home of the so-called “super-whites,” often labeled as VdT or IGT wines. (see Vino Italiano, pg. 29)
• White: Tocai Friulano, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Pinot Bianco, Picolit, Malvasia, Verduzzo.
• Red: Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Refosco, Schioppettino.
Unique grapes of Friuli
• White: Malvasia Istrana, Picolit, Ribolla Gialla, Tocai Friulano, Verduzzo.
• Red: Franconia (Blaufränkisch), Refusco, Pignolo, Schioppettino (Ribolia Nera), Tazzelenghe.
• Collio DOC (or Collio Gorgiziano
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Mostly white wines, slightly better quality. Noticeable push towards more focused wines. Foothills that hug the Slovenian border, with a high concentration of limestone. Jermann makes some of the best wines, but labels them under the IGT Delle Venezie.
• Collio Orientale del Friuli DOC
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Similar to to Collio DOC. Best reputation is for white wines. Good reds, especially Refosco. Home to the famous Picolit DOC. Foothills that hug the Slovenian border, with a high concentration of limestone. Allows 7 reds and 12 whites
• Friuli-Grave (Grave del Friuli) DOC
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Most important in terms of quantity
• Lison-Pramaggiore DOC
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Actually in the eastern part of Veneto but overlaps into Friuli. Most interesting wines are from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Refosco.
• Insonzo DOC (Insonzo del Friuli
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Small area with an improving reputation for Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
• Teroldego Rotilliano DOC
Trentino – Alto Adige
Full-bodied red wines made from the Teroldego grape. French varieties are also planted: Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Pinot Gris.
• Santa Maddalena DOC and Lago di Caldaro DOC
Trentino – Alto Adige
Considered to be the two best reds of the area – made from the Schiava grape
• Valdadige DOC
Trentino – Alto Adige
DOC for the entire valley.
• Trentino DOC
Same as Alto Adige, but reds are a little better here. If varieties are not given, whites are usually Chardonnay-Pinot Blanc blends, and reds are Cabernet-Merlot blends.
• Alto Adige (Sudtiroler) DOC
Reds and whites labeled according to variety.
Alto Adige
Area has a heavy German influence, and German wine names and quality designations (QbA) may appear on labels. Alto Adige (South Tyrol) was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. German and Italian are both spoken in the region so there is a need for bilingual denominations and labels.
Climate: Italy’s most northern region. Can be very cold, so aspect is important. In the Valley of Adige it is cool and mountainous, and full ripening can be an issue. Further south near Lake Garda it is warmer – almost Mediterranean.
Soil Type(s): Soils are sandy and gravelly with some calcareous areas.
Practices and Special Issues: Very mountainous – only 15% of land can be cultivated.
Varietal(s): Most of the wine is varietally labeled.
• White: Pinot Bianco (Weissburgunder), Pinot Grigio (Rülander), and Gewurztraminer (Traminer Aromatico).
• Red: Pinot Nero (Blauburgunder), Schiava (Vernatsch), Lagrein, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot.
The primary grapes of Trentino/Alto Adige:
• White: Nosiola, Müller-Thurgau, Sylvaner.
• Red: Schiava (Vernatsch), Lagrein, Teroldego.
Trentino in south has historically been Italian. The climate is varied. Trentino whites are generally softer than those from Alto Adige.
Grape Varieties:
• White: Chardonnay is the most widespread white variety. Müller-Thurgau, Pinot Grigio (Rülander), Pinot Bianco (Weissburgunder), and Sauvignon Blanc.
• Red: Teroldego, Merlot, Lagrein, Pinot Noir (Blauburgunder), and Schiava Grossa (aka Germany’s Trollinger
Climate is influenced by mountains in north and Adriatic to the east. DOC vineyard area stretches across the middle section from Piave to Lake Garda. 23 DOCs here, and Veneto produces the highest total number of bottles of DOC wine annually in Italy. 30% of this number comes from Soave alone. Veneto is home to some of the largest commercial producers in Italy
• Soave DOC / Soave Classico DOC / Soave Superiore DOCG
One of the more famous wines of Veneto. Made from Garganega with up to 30% of Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc, and Trebbiano allowed. Very hot climate, despite northerly latitude. Best producers are: Pieropan, Anselmi (under San Vincenzo appellation).
• Recioto di Soave DOCG
Sweet wine made from dried grapes
• Gambellara DOC and Bianco di Custoza DOC:
Very similar to Soave. Located next to Soave
• Valpolicella DOC
: Made from 40-80% Corvina. Corvina is the best grape. However, a maximum of 70% is allowed in the blend (not a good thing). Also permitted are: Rondinella (neutral character) and Molinara (high acid). Neither contributes much to the overall character of good Valpolicella. Wide range of styles. Basic Valpolicella is light-bodied and best drunk young.
Valpolicella “Ripasso”
Long tradition of this winemaking technique. The best young Valpolicella is put into tanks or barrels that still contain the lees of the recioto for which they were previously used. When mixed with the young wine, active yeast cells in this sediment precipitate a second fermentation. This increases the alcohol content and gives it some recioto character. After having undergone this process, the wines usually cannot carry the Valpolicella appellation and are therefore sold as vino da tavola under various brand names, although some Valpolicella wines are ‘turbocharged’ by ripasso without any mention of that fact on the label.
• Amarone della Valpolicella DOC
Made from semi-dried grapes. Style is changing. Botrytis or not. Small oak barrels or not. Whether old or new style, this is a full-bodied, intense, and alcoholic wine. See pg 56 in ‘Vino Italiano’ for process details.
• Recioto della Valpolicella DOC:
Similar to Amarone, but sweet.
• Bardolino DOC / Bardolino Superiore DOCG:
Light-bodied, simple reds from same grapes as for Valpolicella and Negrar
• Prosecco di Conegliano Valdobiadene DOC
: Still wines tend to be very dull. Light-bodied tank method is best. The original Bellini was invented at Harry’s Bar in Venice, consisting of blended fresh white peaches mixed with Prosecco.
• Piave DOC:
Mainly red wines, and mostly Merlot. Some Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Refosco. Mass-produced wines can be green and vegetal. Estates like Venegazzu are quite Bordeaux-like.
• Breganze DOC
Very good red and white wines. This area owes a lot to the efforts of Maculan
• Torcolato DOC
From the Breganze region in Veneto, and made by Maculan. Made from grapes that have been naturally dried 4-5 months. The amount of botrytis varies from year to year. From 85% Vespaiolo, 10% Tocai, and 5% Garganega. Aged in 1/3 new oak, 2/3 1-year-old oak for 12 months. 160 g/l R.S., 13.5% alcohol.
Northwest Italy
Bordering Switzerland and France in the Northwest of Italy. Flanked to the north and west by the Alps, and by the Ligurian Sea to the south.
Climate: The winters are severe with frequent inversion fogs rising out of the valleys. Summers are hot, but not excessively so, but hail can damage the grapes at this time of year. Long falls enable Nebbiolo to ripen fully.
Soil Type(s): Wide range of soils with many variations. The predominant type is calcareous marl, which may be interlaid with sand and clay.
Varietal(s): Nebbiolo, Dolcetto, Vermentino, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Nero, Petit Rouge, Moscato, and tons of local varietals.
Great run in late 90s to 2001, followed by several terrible vintages from 2002.
Area has been cultivated for over 25 centuries. Viticulture is essential for managing the land and preventing soil erosion and landslides. Most of the wines are consumed by tourist trade. One of Italy’s smallest and most marginal regions.
• Cinque Terre DOC:
Best-known Ligurian wine, a good, fruity, dry white from the steep cliffs above La Spezia. Made from Bosco, Albarola, and Vermentino. Named after the five villages perched along the Ligurian coast.
• Ormeasco DOC
Soft, fruity, easy-drinking reds from Dolcetto
• Rossese de Dolceacqua DOC
: Soft, spicy, fresh, and fruity reds made from the Rossese grape. Best red of the area.
• Rivera Ligure di Ponente DOC
: Vividly-colored Albenga rosé
• Colli di Luni DOC
Partly overlaps Tuscany, and makes a decent Sangiovese. Whites from Vermentino
Northeast of Piedmont. Very good wines and vineyard areas, but not well-recognized. There is a large area of damp, fertile soils near the Po River that is unsuitable for viticulture.
• Valtellina DOC
Made from min. 95% Nebbiolo grown on hillside vineyards near the Swiss border. Regionally, Nebbiolo (aka Chiavennasca). Excellent southern exposure. This is the largest area for Nebbiolo outside of Piedmont.
• Valtellina Superiore DOCG
Superiore must be from 1 of 5 superior subzones – Marrogia, Valgella, Grumello, Inferno, Sassela. Sfurzat is a term denoting wine made from semi-dried grapes.
• Franciacorta DOC:
Good still reds and whites for DOC. Bottle-fermented version is sparkling white and rosé made from Pinot Bianco and Pinot Nero, promoted to DOCG in 1995, and can equal top Champagne in quality.
• Oltrepo Pavese DOC
Wide variety of wines from wide variety of grapes. Sometimes varietally-labeled, and sometimes not.
Valle d’Aosta
High alpine area. Smallest and most mountainous region in Italy. 20 different styles of wine. 7 subappellations. Vines are planted on lower mountain slopes. Calcareous soils. Cold continental climate – cool summers and harsh winters. Early ripening varieties are best suited to this area. French, Italian, German, and Swiss varieties are grown. Aosta’s red grape is Petit Rouge. Vines are typically trained on a low pergola. Wines are often labeled in French. Most wines are early-drinking wines for tourists. There is one DOC zone, with 7 subzones (the names of which may or may not appear on the label.
The primary red and white grapes of the Valle d’Aosta: Nebbiolo, Fumin, Petite Rouge, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Muller Thurgau, Malvoisie
• Morgex et La Salle DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Blanc: 100% Blanc de Morgex
• Enfer d’Arvier DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Petit Rouge (min 85%), others.
• Torrette DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Petit Rouge (min 70%), others.
• Nus DOC
Valle d’Aosta
: Nus: Pinot Grigio. Nus Rouge: Vien de Nus (min 50%), plus Petit Rouge and Pinot Nero.
• Chambave DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Petit Rouge (min 60%), plus Dolcetto, Gamay, and Pinot Nero. 2 white wines are also permitted, both from Moscato.
• Arnad-Montjovet DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Nebbiolo (min 70%), others
• Donnaz DOC
Valle d’Aosta
Nebbiolo (aka Picotendro, min 85%), others
Was part of the former Kingdom of Savoie. Proximity to France gave this region openness to new ideas and some prosperity. This is reflected in the viticulture. One of the most stable and evolved areas in Italy.
Climate: Continental. The winters are severe with frequent inversion fogs rising out of the valleys. Summers are hot, but not excessively so, but hail can damage the grapes at this time of year. Long falls enable Nebbiolo to ripen fully. Severe climate in winter. Summers are hot. Hail can be a problem. Fog is common. Long autumn excellent for the late-ripening Nebbiolo.
Soil Type(s): Wide range of soils. The best soils tend to have a predominance of marl, clay, and calcareous matter. These layers of soil are typically quite thin and viticulture is virtually the only form of agriculture.
Practices and Special Issues: Area is dominated by the Alps. Piedmont has made the most progress of Italian wine regions for identifying proper areas for vine growing. Nebbiolo is a late-ripening variety, and often harvested in late October. Vineyard aspect is important for Nebbiolo. The predominant form of cultivation is espalier with Guyot vine training.
Vineyards lie in two distinct groups:
East: Near Lake Maggiore
South: In the Langhe and Monferrato hills
Sorì is the term for a ‘cru’, or named site.
Varietal(s): Almost all are native grapes. Barbera, Dolcetto, Friesa, and Grignolino are significant red grapes. Cabernet Sauvignon does well here for vini da tavola. Moscato is the most widely planted white variety. Cortese and Arneis are also used. Some Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Nebbiolo is the main red grape (Nebbia is the Italian word for fog).
Nebbiolo clones: Lampia, Michet, and Rosé. Lampia and Michet are the favored clones in the Langhe.
Nebbiolo is sometimes called Spanna in various parts of Piedmont. Favorita is making a comeback.
: This is the largest area under vine for DOC and DOCG wines – over 40
explain some old to new things in piedmont viniculture
• Extended oak and chestnut cask aging for Barolo and Barbaresco. Now changing, but often left to inconsistent, dried-out wines in the past. The modern technique is use of French barriques.
• Wines were often bottled when orders came in.
• In the past most wines (especially Barolo) were a blend of wines from around the region. Single vineyard, estate-bottled wines, and including the ‘cru’ name on the label are becoming more and more common.
• Asti DOCG:
The largest DOCG. Frothy white wine made from Moscato in a modified version of the tank method (called cuve close). Traditional name was Asti Spumante. Delicious, fragrant, and quaffable.
Moscato d’Asti DOCG: Similar to Asti, but less fizzy. 3 ATM of pressure, as opposed to 5.
• Barbaresco DOCG
North and east of the city of Alba. All vineyards are on hillsides. Only 1200 acres. In order to qualify for the Barbaresco DOCG, Barbaresco must be made exclusively from Lampia, Michet, and Rosé. Calcareous marls similar to the soils around the villages of Barolo and La Morra. Very similar in style to Barolo (more feminine and elegant). Wines from the vineyards of Santo Stefano and Bricco di Neive can resemble Barolo. Locals call them baroleggiano. Barbaresco occupies less than half of the vineyard area of Barolo. Minimum aging requirements are slightly less than Barolo (min. 2 years, one of which in cask). Nebbiolo ripens earlier in this area. Angelo Gaja revitalized the area but has now abandoned the use of the name. Best producers: Produttori di Barbaresco; Pio Cesare; Gaja; Bruno Rocca; Scarpa; Bruno Giacosa.
Gaja Barbaresco Crus: Costa Russi, Sorì San Lorenzo, Sorì Tildin.
Other Gaja Crus: Darmagi (Cabernet); Bassi (Chardonnay), Gaia & Rey (Chardonnay), Rossi (Chardonnay).
The best Barbaresco Crus: San Lorenzo, Ghiga, Martinenga, Sori Tildin, Asili, Rabaja.
Villages (districts) of Barbaresco: Barbaresco, Neive, Treiso d’Alba, San Rocco Seno d’Elvio.
The most important traditional Barbaresco crus (vineyards) are:
○ Neive: Neive is characterized by typically leaner, more austere style. Best crus: Albesani, Basarin, Gallina, Santo Stefano.
○ Barbaresco: Most of the best Barbaresco crus are here. Usually a fruitier, more generous style (with higher ripeness levels). Best crus: Montestefano, Martinenga, Montefico, Paglieri, Pora, Rabajà, Rio Sordo, Bricco Asili, Costa Russi, Sorì San Lorenzo, Sorì Tildin (the last three are all owned by Gaja, and are part of a larger cru site, the Secondine vineyard).
○ Treiso: The southern end of Barbaresco, and the least known. Best crus: Pajoré, Marcarini, Il Bricco, Nervo.
• Barolo DOCG
Made entirely from Nebbiolo (known locally as Chiavennasca or Spanna). In order to qualify for the Barolo DOCG, Barolo must be made exclusively from Lampia, Michet, and Rosé, and the yield must not exceed 8,000 kilos/ha. Traditionally aged for long periods in large oak or chestnut casks. Tremendous aging capacity. Entire area composed of gentle slopes with occasionally steep slopes. Originally 3 years cask aging. Reduced to 2 years and is now 1 year (Riserva is 4 years, and Riserva Special is 5 years). The style of wines is influenced by several factors: Producer (traditional vs. modern), Location of vineyard (2 distinct soil types have been identified: calcareous marl in the northwest, and more iron-rich in the southeast). Barolo wines are typically rich and concentrated. Deceptively light-colored considering the alcohol and tannin structure. Aromas of plums, tar, tobacco, and anise. Structured, sometimes vicious tannins. High alcohol and acidity.

The Barolo Valley differs from the Serralunga Valley. The Barolo Valley (western portion of Barolo) has a Tortonian terrain which is a blend of limestone and marl. The Serralunga is Helevetion which is limestone and sand. The result is the Serralunga Valley (in eastern Barolo) produces richer more robust wines, while Barolo Valley produces lighter, fruitier, earlier maturing wines. The villages located in the Barolo are: La Morra, Barolo, Charasco, Novello, Roddi d’Alba, Verduna. The villages located in the Serralunga are: Castiglione Falleto, Monforte d’Alba, Serralunga d’Alba, Diano d’Alba, Grinzane Cavore. All of the communes are south of the city of Alba, in the undulating hills east of the River Tanaro and are traversed by a number of small tributaries.
The 5 core townships (and sixth lesser) that make up the Barolo area:
○ Barolo: Said to combine the velvety, supple, more feminine side of Nebbiolo with considerable structure and concentration – the St. Julien or Margaux of Barolo. Best crus: Bricco delle Viole, Brunate*, Cerequio*, La Villa, Cannubi (often considered the finest of all Barolo vineyards), Sarmassa.
○ La Morra: Largest of the main five. In the northwestern corner of the Barolo DOCG. The most supple, seductive Barolos, and the easiest to drink in youth. The Pomerol of Barolo. Best crus: Brunate*, Cerequio*, Monfalletto, Rocche, La Serra.
○ Castiglione Falletto: Smallest of the main five. Reputation for boldness, richness, full body, power, and concentration – the Pauillac of Barolo. Best crus: Falletto Roche, Villero, Monprivato.
○ Serralunga d’Alba: Eastern edge of the Barolo DOCG. The wines here gain added depth and concentration from higher sandstone and limestone soils, creating more deeply extracted and tannic Barolos. A synthesis of Pauillac and St.-Estèphe. Best crus: Vigna Rionda, Ornato, Briccolina, Vigna Francia, Lazzarito.
○ Monforte d’Alba: Most southern of the Barolo zones. Claims to be the longest-lived, most concentrated, firmest wines. The St.-Estèphe of Barolo. Best crus: Bussia Soprana, Bricco Cicala, Pianpolvere, Ginestra.
○ Verduno: (best cru: Monvigliero), Diano d’Alba, Grinzane Cavour, Novello, Cherasco, and Roddi.
Some of the more noted vineyards: Cannubi, Brunate, Cerequio, Valletta, Bricco Roche, La Serra. Best producers: Marziano Abbona; Elio Altare; Bricco Roche; Clerico; Gaja; Bruno Giacosa; Vietti
Barolo Chinato DOCG
A DOCG bitters made by steeping quinine in Barolo.
• Brachetto d’Aqui DOCG
Similar to Lambrusco (sweet, frizzante, and sparkling red wines) with a more grapey, Muscat-like character
• Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore DOCG
• Gattinara DOCG
Nebbiolo, max 10% Bonarda. Similar to Barolo but not as refined.
• Gavi o Cortese di Gavi DOCG
: Probably the finest still white wine of Piedmont. Dry and crisp, with lemony acidity. Uneven quality.
• Ghemme DOCG:
All Nebbiolo-based red wines
• Roero DOCG:
• Barbera (d’Asti, d’Alba) DOC
High natural acidity and deep ruby color. Higher yielder than Nebbiolo. There is a large array of styles. Some are light, fresh, fruity, and meant for early consumption. Others are more full-bodied and concentrated and require cellaring. Some fall in-between. Increasing use of small oak barriques for maturation.
• Freisa d’Asti DOC
Light, sometimes slightly sparkling red wines.
• Dolcetto (d’Alba, d’Asti, d’Acqui) DOC
Soft and fruity reds, some with age-worthiness. Low acid, smooth, juicy wines. Wines from around Asti tend to be lighter. From Acqui, Beaujolais-style wines
• Grignolino d’Asti DOC
Light-bodied red wine
• Monferrato DOC:
All-encompassing red and white DOC introduced in 1995.
• Langhe DOC
Overlaps Barbaresco, Barolo, Nebbiolo d’Alba, Dolcetto d’Alba, Barbera d’Alba. White, red, and six varietal wines are permitted: Dolcetto, Freisa, Nebbiolo for red; Arneis, Favorita, and Chardonnay for white. Langhe covers almost the entire province of Cuneo, in the southwest of the region. Langhe DOC operates as a DOC di ricaduta (“relapsed”) and includes all reds that cannot be included in other denominations. This relaxed category permits different lengths of bottle aging for Barolo or Barbaresco, less traditional maturation techniques, and experiments with non-traditional (‘international’) grape varietals. In general, this includes many high-quality wines matured in small barriques, and plays the same role as the Super Tuscans in Tuscany