Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what causes the indifferent gonad to become an embryonic testis?
SRY antigen
embryonic sertoli cells make what for proper male reproductive tract deveolopment?
Mullerian Inhibiting Factor (MIF) which causes regression of the Mullerian Ducts
embryonic leydig cells make what for proper male reproductive tract developement?
Testosterone which stimulates the development of the Wolffian Ducts (which become the vas deferens, seminal vesicales, and Epididymis. Testosterone is also converted to DHT for development of the penis and scrotum
Describe the masculization of the brain
Testosterone released from the leydig cells makes its way to a zone in the hypothalamus called the sexual dimorphic nucleus. T is converted to Estradiol (E2) which causes male libido. E2 also masculinizes brain (increases size)
induces tonic release of GnRH in adult animal (GnRH is regulated by T E2 and P4).
T causes male agressive behavoir
Seminiferous Tubule
_____________ cells - Leydig which release T4 and are
- stimulated by _____ from the__________
Spermatogonium stimulated by _________. For spermatogenesis to occur
HIGH ___________ is absolutely required for development
from spermatocytes to spermatids
Seminiferous Tubule
Interstitial cells - Leydig which release T4 and are
- stimulated by LH from the pit
Spermatogonium stimulated by- FSH. For spermatogenesis to occur
HIGH Testosterone is absolutely required for development
from spermatocytes to spermatids
why don't female embyros develope a masculized brain from the dams E2
They make alpha feto protein which binds E2 but not T
Sertoli Cells function in the adult
1.nurture developing sperm
2.forms blood testis barrier
3.endocrine function, both T4 and FSH affect it
FSH - Inhibin (Inhibin neg feedback on pit FSH)
- Androgen binding protein (ABP)
binds T4 and DHT to increase levels of the hormones
T4 - enzymes involved in spermatogenesis
What effect do Anabolic Steriods have on the male reproductive tract?
1.Anabolic Steriods can not be converted to E2 or DHT
2.without E2 animal decreases libido
3.without DHT animal decreaes acessory sex gland size and function
4.anabolic steriods act T, so increase male aggresive behaviors and increase muscle mass
5.Anabolic steriod also provide neg feedback on hypothalamus release of GnRH and anterior pitutitary release of LH and FSH.
6.without LH and FSH T4 concentration in testis drops from 100 X to 3 X
not sufficient fro spermatogenesis
7.spermatogenesis stops or at least reduced
- Leydig cells - shrink
Seminiferous tubules not making sperm 6 shrink
:. testis physically shrinks
long term effcts of anaboic steriods on repro
- dependent upon length of administration, time when
administered (young vs old animal) & compound
short duration & some luck 6 recovery in 6-12 months
- very little known about effects on immature animals
- can be a real problem when owner retires animal for stud
horses, dogs 6 no pregnancies
what gland controls seasonal breeders?
pineal gland
pineal gland is controled by
light
light _______ the release of melatonin
inhibits
BSE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
(BULLS)
Common hereditary foot problems:
• Corkscrew claw defect
• Interdigital fibromas (corns)
• Weak pasterns
• Post-leggedness
• Sickle hocks
BSE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
(BULLS)
Common ocular problems:
• Squamous cell carcinoma
• Infectious bovine
keratoconjunctivitis or pinkeye
(Moraxella bovis)
TESTES EVALUATION
Testicular Volume (TV)
Measurement of TV can help:
• Predict potential sperm production
• Identify problems with sperm production
• Help determine potential number of
(mares) that can be mated per day
Internal Genitalia
• In bulls, the most
common abnormal
finding is
enlargement,
excessive firmness
or loss of
lobulation of the
______________
Internal Genitalia
• In bulls, the most
common abnormal
finding is
enlargement,
excessive firmness
or loss of
lobulation of the
vesicular glands
SEMEN EVALUATION
• Motility
raw semen
extended semen
• Minimum values
Bulls - fair gross swirling/wave
> __________________
Stallions > ____________
SEMEN EVALUATION
• Motility
raw semen
extended semen
• Minimum values
Bulls - fair gross swirling/wave
> 30% progressive
Stallions > 60 % progressive
SEMEN EVALUATION
• Morphology
head defects
acrosome defects
protoplasmic droplets
• Minimum values
Bull > _____________
Stallion > ______________
SEMEN EVALUATION
• Morphology
head defects
acrosome defects
protoplasmic droplets
• Minimum values
Bull > 70 % normal
Stallion > 60 % normal
SEMEN EVALUATION
Ancillary Tests
• Sperm chromatin structure assay
• Fluorescent probes (stains/dyes)
• Antisperm antibody tests
• Biochemical analysis of seminal plasma
SEMEN EVALUATION
Fluorescent Stains
• Can be used to evaluate specific aspects of
sperm morphology or integrity
SEMEN EVALUATION
Antisperm Antibody (ASA) tests
• Spermatozoa develop in an immune-privileged
site
• Blood-testis barrier is tight junctions between
adjacent Sertoli cells
• Disruption of the B-T barrier can lead to
development of ASA (i.e. trauma, neoplasia)
• ASA (IgG) can cause a decrease in fertility
BSE CLASSIFICATION: BULLS
• Satisfactory
• Questionable*
• Decision Deferred
• Unsatisfactory
BSE CLASSIFICATION: STALLIONS
• Satisfactory Breeding Prospect
• Questionable Breeding Prospect
• Unsatisfactory Breeding Prospect
Swedish Highland Cattle are assoicated with what reproductive probelms
testicular hypoplasia
cryptorchidism
intersex conditions
chromosomal abnormalities
XXY cats are usally have what gonad problem
testicular hypoplasia
cryptorchidism incidence and most common speices
1%
pigs, dogs, horses
Is cryptorchidism inhertided treat
controversial
may be in some individuals
isolated event in most individuals
crytorchidism:
_________ (unilateral/bilateral) more common.
_______ tends to be intra-abdominal and _______tends to be inguinal.
unilateral
left
right
problems with cryptorchidism
risk of neoplasia increased
prone to torsion of the spermatic cord
in bilateral cryptorchism what part of the histolgoy of the testis is prominent
interstital cells- leydig
what is the most frequent cause of reduced fertility in the male
testicular degeneration
many causes
primary spermatocytes most susceptible
testicular degeneration potential causes:
elevated temperature
frostbite
systemic infections
nutritional factors
toxins
vascular occlusion
obstruction to sperm outflow
autoimmuntiy
age
hormonal deficiencies
cause of orchitis
trauma
infection-hematogenous
torsion of the spermatic cord is most common in what speices
dogs and horses
testicular interstitial cell tumor
leydig cell tumor
tan in color
discrete, soft
most common testis tumor of the dog
minimal androgen production
seldom metastasize
sustentacular cell tumor
sertoli cell tumor
white, lobular, firm
frequent in dog
metastasis unusual
estrogenic effects: feminization, alopecia, bone marrow suppression
teratoma
most frequent equine testicular tumor
primarily in cryptorchid testis
may contain multiple tissue types
most common penis lesions in the bull
penile deviation
infectiou pustular balanoposthitis
persistent frenulum
penile hematoma
preputial abscess
fibropapilloma
common penis lesions in the stallion
priapism
paraphimosis and phimosis
neoplasia (SCC)
habronemiasis (summer sores)
coital exanthema
urethritis
equine coital exanthema
equine herpesvirus 3
species specific
self limiting
venereal transmission
common penis lesions in the dog
transmissible venereal tumor
canine herpesvirus
fracture of the os penis
ulcerative posthitis
"pizzle rot" in sheep caused by corynebacterium renale/high protein rations
common penis lesions in the boar
preputial diverticulitis
most common accessory sex gland lesion of the bull
seminal vesiculitis
prostatic disease is common in what speices
dog
ampullitis is most common in what spieces
equine
obstruction of ductus deferens