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207 Cards in this Set

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nutrients
substances used by living cells for their vital functions.
carbohydrates
compounds in food that are an important and immediate source of energy.
lipids
water-insoluable substances that make up fats.
Protein
the nutrient that forms a large and essential portion of the body mass.
ingestion
drinking and eating
metabolism
the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
rumen
largest compartment of the forestomach in rumnants.
omasum
smalles compartment of the forestomach in rumnants.
dehydration
excessive water loss
succulent
moist
brackish
unappealing to taste
salinity
the measurment of total dissolved solids.
glucose
a monosacharide or simple sugar, is the form of sugar that the body uses as energy.
polysaccharides
are complex sugars, cellulose, and starches and more difficult to digest than monosaccharides.
sucrose
table sugar
cellulose
a polysaccharide found in plants also called an insoluable carbohydrate or fiber.
anaerobic fermentation
the breakdown of carbohydrates into fatty acids without oxygen.
Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
a series of reactions that glucose undergoes to release its energy while converting it to carbon dioxide and water.
calorie
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree centigrade.
kilocalorie
equal to 1000 calories
ketosis
occurs when carbohydrates dont break down properly causing chemicals called ketones to build up in body tissues and blood.
glycogen
fat stored in the body because of excess carbohydrates.
diabetes mellitus
lack of insulin
insulin
a hormone secreted by the pancreas
amino acids
chemical compounds that are made of nitrogen plus carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Proteins are made of amino acids and there are 23 of them.
nonessential amino acids
12 of the 23 amino acids produced by the animal's body
essential amino acids
11 of the 23 amino acids produced by the animal's body that it gets directly from it's diet.
protein deficiency
reduced protein in the body
foodstuffs
any material made into or used as feed or food
lipids
fats, oils
choline
a vitamin essential to liver function
saturated fats
dont react readily with other compounds in the body and tend to say in the body longer...animal fats, and certain plant oils such as palm and coconut oil.
unsaturated fats
act well with other compounds and are used readily within the body. Includes plant oils like corn, soybean, and olive oils.
athersclerosis
a disease of blood vessels linked to heart disease.
necrosis
tissue death
edema
swelling
minerals
naturally occuring compounds that arent animal or plant.
macrominerals
needed in high levels, sodium, chlorine, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfer.
calcification
hardening of bones
rickets
a disease in which bones are soft and deformed.
microminerals
needed in low levels, cobalt, iodine, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and selenium.
calcium
needed for bone growth and formation.
phosphorus
also needed for bone growth and formation.
iodine
needed for proper thyroid function.
iron
neccessary for hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood. low levels result in anemia.
fat-soluable
vitamins that can be dissolved by fat and absorbed into the intestine. Includes A D E and K. Usually stays in body but when excreted excretes in feces.
water-soluable
vitamins that can be dissolved by water including B and C. Usually excreted daily in urine.
simple deficiency
the mineral is lacking in the diet.
conditioned deficiency
when some other dietary factor makes the mineral less available to the animal.
buffers
substances to help maintain the ph of body fluids by limiting acidity.
Heme
an iron compound in the blood that makes it capable of transporting oxygen in the hemoglobin.
dietary requirement
a need for a vitamin that the body doesnt manufacture.
physiological requirement
a need for a vitamin that the body does manufacture.
synthesize
combine elements to create
coprophagic
used to describe animals that ingest their own feces. Ie rabbits
metabolic processes
activities within the body that build, mantain, and provide energy to an organism.
osmotic
across membrane
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
energy supplying nucleotide found in all cells.
cytochrome
electron transport
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a component of cells that is responsible for protein sythesis.
tocopherol
another name for vitamin E
monogastric
having only one stomach compartment
B complex vitamins
thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, folic acid, biotin, and choline.
Thiamine
helps convert carbohydrates into energy and aids energy metabolism in general.
cocarboxylase
coenzyme form of thiamine
riboflavin
component of a coenzyme which functions in electron transport.
niacin
one of the simplest vitamins, helps living cells generate energy from food.
rhodopsin
a chromoprotein that prevents night blindness
tryptophan
a naturally occuring amino acid.
erythropoiesis
the production of red blood cells
propionic acid
an important fatty acid synthesized by rumnant bacteria.
myelin
sheath that protects delicate nerve tissue
pyridoxin
vitamin B6
folacin
acid isolated from the foliage of spinach.
acetylcholine
compound that transmitts nerve impulses across synapses
phospholipids
fats concerned with the transport and oxidation of fatty acids in the liver.
ascorbic acid
vitamin C.antioxidant
parturient paresis
milk fever
tetany
continuous muscle spasm that results in limb rigidity or flaccid paralysis. caused by milk fever.
flaccid paralysis
charactarized by loss of voluntary movement, decreased tone of limb muscles, absence of tendon reflexes, and muscle wasting.
hyperirritability
pathological responsiveness to slight stimuli
grass tetany/wheat pasture poisoning
physiological deficiency produced by the interplay of nitrogen and potassium, interfereing with magnesium uptake and increased magnesium excretion. Tetany and death can result.
salt toxicity
results when animals are deprived of salt and then have access to salty water or loose salt without access to water. produces swelling of cells including nerve cells which results in neurological signs.
alkalosis
a life threatening shift in the acid-base balance of the blood. caused by deficiencies in the diet that lead to depletion of chloride ions in gastric secretions.
blood gas test
used to measure the levels of CO2 and oxygen in the blood.
white muscle disease
caused by acute selenium deficiency which results in high mortality among young calves and lambs.
mulberry heart disease
hemorragic heart disorder that usually results in death.
neonatal enzoonic ataxia (swayback)
nervous disorder observed in lambs with copper deficiency.
parakeratosis
changes in the skin and hoofs, rough scaly skin, breaks in the skin around the hoofs, and a dull listless appearance due to zinc deficiency.
lesion
a loss of function of a body part resulting from tissue damage.
beriberi
thyamine deficiency in humans
prothrombin
a clotting factor
polioencephalomalcia
softening of the cerebrocortical grey matter
pellagra
niacin deficiency in humans
blacktongue
mouth and tounge ulcers in dogs
stomatitis
inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth.
scurvey
vitamin C deficiency
palatability
measures how well an animal likes a food.
acceptability
indicates whether or not the animal will actually ingest enough food to meet its caloric requirements.
true appetite
is the nutritional need of the animal.
learned appetite
previous experience that may result in aversion to food.
ruminate
regurgitate food and chew their cud
caloric density
energy concentration
six essential nutrients
water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
urea
the cheif compound in urine
rancid
rotten
GRAS
generally recognized as safe
Classifications of food additives
anti caking agents, chemical preservatives, emulsifying agents, sequestrants, stabilizers, general purpose additives, spices and seasonings, flavors, color additives, therapeutic agents, hormones, growth stimulating agents.
arsenicals
compounds containing arsenic
antimycotics
destructive to fungi
antiprotozoals
destructive to protozoa
anthelminthics
destructive to worms.
withdrawal times
interval between the end of antibiotic therapy and the animal's use for meat or milk production.
goitrogens
substances that produce swelling of the thyroid gland and occur naturally is some forages.
diethylstilbestrol
synthetic non-steroidal estrogen better known as DES.
blackhead
a fatal disease of turkeys
coccidiosis
a serios digestive disease in chickens.
concentrates
generally low in fiber, high energy feeds used for monogastric species and non-ruminant herbevours.
forages
are high in fiber and low energy foodstuffs
complete feed or complete rations
feed that requires no supplementation other than drinking water.
hay
is grass or other plants cut and dried for fodder
fodder
feed for herbivores
haylage
hay harvested wet, allowed to wilt, then placed in a silo where it ferments...a preservation measure.
silage
similar to haylage, green forage stored directly in a silo where it ferments.
direct cut or green chop
forage cut and fed immediately to livestock.
grinding
grain is beaten and crushed by a hammer mill until its small enough to pass through certain sized screen
rolling
grain is crushed between rollers
crimping
grain is crushed between rollers with a corrugated surface.
pelleting
grain is condensed into pellets, a procedure which results in significant fiber loss, used for poultry and some livestock and dogs and cats.
kibbles
food baked on a sheet then broken into small peices.
expanded foods
cooked in an extruder and forced through a die which results in expansion.
soft-moist foods
produced in a similar fashion but a lower temperatures
Ration
contain animal tissues, soy products and cereals.
gourmet
contain skeletal muscle, animal byproducts and textured vegetable protein TVP in their composition.
mangers or bunks
feeding troughs
Principal federal laws and agencies...
Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Federal Trade Commission, Fair Packaging and Labeling Act, United States Department of Agriculture. USDA
adulterated food
food containing any poisonous or dangerous substance which may pose a health concern, food containing any filty, putrid, or decomposes substances, food prepared, held or packed under unsanitary conditions or containing any diseased animal parts, or in a containter composed of any poisonous or deleterious substances.
Federal Trade Commison
concerns itself with advertising
Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
regulates interstate commerce in food distribution
Fair packaging and Labeling Act
specifies the kind, location, and type size of certain information required to appear on the label.
USDA
specifies amounts for meat ingredients and nutriend specifications.
guaranteed analysis
a list of nutrient ingredients on all animal feed packages.
supplement
to add something to the diet to complete it, make up for a deficiency, or extend or strengthen the whole diet.
basal energy requirements (BAR)
the amount of energy an animal's diet must provide.
joule
measure of work done by force over distance. 1 joule is the work done by a force of 1 newton acting over a distance of one meter.
kilojoule
a unit of energy comprising a thousand joules.
maintenance feeding
good quality, complete and well balanced diet of an adult animal that is healthy no pregnant, not a working animal such as a racing dog.
ameliorating
making disease more tolerable
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
charactaristic of chronic renal failure is increase of BUN
ascites
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid within the peritoneal cavity.
ash
the weight of a foodstuff after it has been heated in a furnace to 500c or 600c.
roughage
coarse bulky feeds, largely indigestible material fed to species other than ruminants and horses.
animal byproducts
meat, meat meal, bone meal, blood meal...used primarily to supplement carnivore and omnivore diets.
cellulose
crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, or cell walls, not as digestible as starch
tame hay
hay grown specifically as feed for foraging animals.
ergot
a dried fungus that can kill livestock that consume it.
goitrogenic
tend to inhibit iodine concentration in the thyroid.
sweet clover disease
a blood clotting disorder triggered when bacteria in the hay create dicoumarin.
dicoumarin
a chemical that prevents vitamin K from functioning.
grains
are high in total digestible nutrients and phosphorus, fair in protein, and low in fiber and calcium.
grass hays
are high in fiber, fair in calcium, and low in protein, total digestible nutrients, and phosphorus.
legume hays
are high in protein, calcium, and fiber, and fair in phosphorus.
psittacines
members of the order psittaciforms which includes parrots and parakeets.
anorexia
diminished appetite or aversion of food
septicemia
the entry of bacteria and their toxins into the circulation (caused by anorexia)
neoplasia
uncontrolled and progressive tumor growth
enteral feeding
feeding by way of the intestine
orgastric intubation
passing a tube down the mouth and into the stomach.
nasogastric intubation
through the nose and into the stomach.
pharyngastomy tube
surgically created opening in the pharynx where tubes are placed through the skin behind the hyoid apparatus and the beginning of the esophagus.
gastrostomy tube
incision in the stomach where tubes pass through the body wall directly into the stomach.
jejunostomy tube
surgically created opening between the jejunum and the surface of the intestinal wall where a sterile feeding tube is inserted and fastened to the jejunum of the small intestine.
hyoid apparatus
the chain of bones that suspends the larynx and tongue from the skull.
laparotomy
incision through the abdominal wall
edoscopic
employing an endoscope, an instrument used for direct visual inspection of hollow organs or body cavities.
lumen
the cavity or channel within a tube or tubular organ
bolus
a rounded mass
parenteral nutrition
intravenous feeding
total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
provides all essential nutrients by intravenous administration.
hyperosmolarity
abnormally increased osmotic pressure
hydrolysed casein
a processed mikl protein
phospholipids
any lipid that contains phosphorus
glycerol
a variety of sugar alcohol
glucosuria
presence of glucose in the blood
lipemia
excess lipids in the blood
colitis
inflammation of the large intestine
low residue
leaving little waste product behind
gluten
tough protein component of wheat
medium chain triglycerides
one of the more rapidly digestible fatty acids.
megaesophagus
dilation and atony or lack of muscle tone of the body of the esophagus.
gastric dilation
a life threatening condition in which the stomach becomes overdistended with gas and/or fluid and an obstruction prevents releif
atopy
allergic dermatitis
linoleic acid
a fatty acid essential in the diet of all animals
anemia
lack of circulating red blood cells or red blood cells deficient in hemoglobin
erythropoietin
a chemical secreted by the kidneys when they sense blood of low oxygen and stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow
ascites
collection of serous fluid withing the abdominal cavity
albumin
protein produced in the liver that helps maintain blood volume.
copper storage disease
abnormal accumulation of copper from the liver
debility
abnormal body weakness or feebleness
puerperal tetany/eclampsia
occurs as convulsions and coma in the female following the birth of her young.
hyperlipidemia
elevated concentrations of any or all the lipids in the plasma
hypothyroidism
deficiency of thyroid gland activity
lymphangiectasia
charactarized by obstructed or dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine
acute pancreatitis
leakage of digestive enzymes due to inflammation which begin autodigestion of the pancreas and other abdominal viscera
polyuria
formation and excretion of a large amount of urine.
concretion
hard mass
urolithiasis
formation of a concretion in the kidney, ureter, or bladder.