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94 Cards in this Set

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3 General Rules of Word Structure of Medical Terminology (These rules hold true for most medical terms.)
1. Read the meaning of medical terms beginning w/the suffix, then proceed to the first part of the word and follow through.
2. Drop the combining vowel before a suffix beginning with a vowel.
3. Retain the combining vowel between two roots.
Anterior
pertaining to the front
Caudad
toward the tail
Cranial
pertaining to the head
Caudocranial
pertaining to the tail and head; directionally pertaining to coursing from the tail to the head
Craniocaudal
pertaining to the head and tail; directionally pertaining to coursing form the head to the tail.
Dorsal
pertaining to the back; clinically refers to the dorsum of the head, neck, trunk, and tail.
Palmar
pertaining to the palm; in veterinary medicine refers to the sole of the forefeet of domestic animals.
Dorsopalmar
pertaining to the dorsum and palm; directionally pertaining to coursing from the dorsum to the palm (forefoot).
Plantar
pertaining to the sole; in veterinary medicine refers to the sole of the hindfoot of domestic animals.
Dorsoplantar
pertaining to the dorsum and sole; directionally pertaining to coursing from the dorsum to the sole (hindfoot)
Ventral
pertaining to the belly; clinically refers to those surfaces of the head, neck, trunk, and tail oriented the same as the belly surface.
Dorsoventral
pertaining to the back and the belly; directionally pertaining to coursing from the sorsumj to the belly.
Lateral
pertaining to the side
Medial
pertaining to the middle
Mediolateral
pertaining to the middle and side; directionally pertaining to coursing from the middle to the side.
Palmarodorsal
pertaining to the palm and dorsum; directionally pertaining to coursing from the sole to the dorsum (forefoot)
Plantarodorsal
pertaining to the sole and dorsum; directionally pertaining to coursing from the sole to the dorsum (hindfoot)
Posterior
pertaining to the rear
Rostral
pertaining to the nose
Name the 4 basic planes that divide the body.
1. Median plane
2. Sagittal planes
3. Dorsal plane
4. transverse plane
Median plane
divides the body into equal right and left halves. (Also referred to as midsagittal)
Sagittal planes
any planes that lie parallel to the median plane. Sagittal planes divide extremities longitudinally into medial and lateral aspects.
Dorsal plane
divides the animal into dorsal and ventral portions.
Transverse plane
intersects the body perpendicular to the bodies axis, dividing the trunk of the animal into cranial and caudal regions.
distal
distant
proximal
close
Microscopic
pertaining to a small view; clinically refers to something that requires visualization by use of a microscope.
Cytology
the study of cells
Lysosomal
pertaining to a dissolving/destructive body
Intracellular
pertaining to within cells
Extracellular
pertaining to outside of cells
Nuclear
pertaining to a nucleus
Chromosome2
a colored body
Endoplasmic
pertaining to within matter
Centriole
a small center
Cytoplasmic
pertaining to cell matter (cytoplasm)
Vacuole
a small emptiness
Chromatic
pertaining to color
Phagocytosis3
process of eating (by) cells.
Pinocytosis
process of drinking (by) cells.
Nucleolus
a small nucleus
Exocytosis
processing out of a cell
Mitosis
a condition of a "thread"; clinically refers to cellular reproduction
Nuclei
plural of nucleus
Intercellular
pertaining to between cells
Organelle
a tiny organ
Physiology
the study of function
Reticular
pertaining to a net
Ribosomal
pertaining to an RNA body
Centromere
a central part
Cells
smallest functional units of the body. Separate, functional compartments that make up the tissues of the body.
Cyt
refers to cell
Chromat
refers to color
Phago
refers to cells eating
Pino
refers to cells drinking
1. Inter
2. Intra
3. Extra
1. between (i.e. 2 cells)
2. within
3. outside of
Ribosomal
pertaining to an RNA body
Centromere
a central part
Cells
the smallest functional units of the body.
"-ology" as a suffix
"the study of"
"some" as a suffix
"a body"
Cyt
refers to a cell
Chromat
refers to color
Phago
refers to cell eating
Pino
refers to cell drinking
Nucle
refers to nucleus
1. Inter
2. Intra
3. Extra
1. between
2. within
3. outside of
Cellular membrane
the outermost structure of a cell that forms an envelope around all of the intracellular components. It is composed of lipids and proteins.
Cytoplasm
a colorless fluid that gives the cell mass and suspends all of the intracellular organelles.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a complex network of canals and flattened sacs throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. It is devoid of ribosomes.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
a network of canals and flattened sacs throughout the cytoplasm of the cell. It appears rough microscopically because of the many ribosomes attached to it.
Ribosomes
tiny, spherical organelles attached to the membrane of the rough endoplamic reticulum.
Mitochondrion
(mitochondria, plural) under the microscope, appear as tiny, elongated granules with thread-like ridges over their surfaces. The texture is created by the intricate maze of partitions within the mitochondrial interior.
Lysosome
small, enzyme-filled sacs. The enzymes within them literally dissolve particles with which thy come in contact.
Vacuole
often appear microscopically as small, empty, cytoplasmic spaces, much like the appearance of holes in Swiss cheese. Actually, vacuoles are vesicles that often contain either food for the cell or waste prducts to be removed from the cell.
Golgi apparatus
a specialized series of flattened sacs and vesicles near the nucleus.
Nucleus
a large intracellular organelle formed of loosley woven chromatin. The chromatin, when the cell is stained in the laboratory, readily accepts the stain, giving it a colorful appearance microscopically.
Chromatin
made up of loosely woven DNA, which when undergoing mitosis will become organized into the rod-like chromosomes that contain the blueprints of the cell.
Nuclear membrane
forms a porous envelope around tne nucleus
Nucleolus
Nucleoli are small, dense structures w/in the nucleus that are composed mainly of RNA and protein. They usually are visible only in very active cells.
Centriole
two cylindrical structures found near the nucleus and the Golgi apparatus. The centrioles lie perpendicular to one another and are of importance during mitosis.
1. organic compounds

2. inorganic compounds
1. containing carbon

2. noncarbon containing
What is the atomic weight of an element determined by?
The nuclear mass
What is the atomic number of an element determined by?
The number of protons (positively charged particles within the nucleus of an atom.
The number of electrons in an atom equals the number of what?
Protons in the nucleus
(This renders the atom neutral)
The atomic weight of an alement is approximately equal to what?
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
The stability of an atom is determined by what?
By the number of electrons filling its outermost shell. Those filled to capacity are considered stable or inert.
Electrolytes
Salts, acids, or bases that dissociate into ions in body fluids. They affect many body functions. (ex. salts, like NaCl, tend to attract water, which has an impact on the hydration of the body.
Bases
compounds that combine with hydrogen ions (H+) in solution.
Acids
compounds that release hydrogen ions in solution.
The acid-base balance (pH) of the body is determined by what?
the numbers of hydrogen ions (H+) versus bicarbonate ions (HCO3-). For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Amino Acids
A type of compound that are the "building blocks" for proteins. Large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms.
Nucleic Acids
The most fundamental molecular compounds for cells. They contain phosphorus in addition to C, H, O, and N. (2 major types are DNA & RNA)