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44 Cards in this Set

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endocrine system
involves the secretion of hormones.
hormones
chemicals in the body that control bodily functions.
exocrine
secretion of chemicals outside the body.
pituitary gland (hypophysis)
a ventral protrusion of the brain, controls other endocrine glands. Has two parts, anterior and posterior pituitaries.
anterior pituitary
synthesizes the hormones it excretes and secretes hormones that act directly on tissues to produce their effects.
posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
an outgrowth of nervous tissue from the hypothalmus in the brain. two hormomes are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. anitdiuretic hormone and oxticyn.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or Vassopressin
acts to improve water uptake in the renal collecting duct by increasing its permeability to water.
oxytocyn
stimulates milk production and is important in stimulating contractions in the uterus during labor.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
stimulates thyroid gland growth and secretion
adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates adrenal glands to produce various hormones
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
involved in the development and function of the reproductive glands
luteinizing hormone (LH)
involved in the development and function of the reproductive glands
growth hormone (GH)
helps person or animal develop maturely
prolactin
stimulates development and secretion of the mammary glands
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
stimulates production of melanin by special cells called melanocytes in the skin.
thyroid glands
two small glands in the neck that secrete thyroid hormone and calcitonin
calcitonin
helps regulate blood calcium levels
thyroid hormone
controls cell metabolism and stimulates nervous tissue growth, production of proteins and blood glucose levels.
thyroxin
molecule known as T4 contains four iodine molecules
triiodothyronine
T3 incorporates three iodine molecules
parathyroid glands
pair of very small glands that secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) or parathormone
parathormone
causes blood calcium level to rise.
adrenal gland
small oval shaped flattened gland. has two sections, adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.
adrenal cortex
the outer layer of tissue in the adrenal gland and secretes mineralocorticoids, aldosterone, glucorticoids, androgen and estrogen.
adrenal medulla
the inner core of tissue in the adrenal gland which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
islets of langerhans
clumps of cells scattered among the exocrine pancreatic cells.
insulin
enables cells especially liver muscle and fat cells to take glucose from the blood to be used to generate energy for cellular functions.
glucagon
opposes many effects of insulin by decreasing uptake of glucose by cells.
somatostatin
hormone secreted by the pancreas that inhibits the secretion of insulin and glucagon.
hyperglycemia
lack of insulin leading to excessive glucose levels in the blood
diabetes mellitus
deficiency of insulin secretion.
androgens
group of hormones involved with the development of male secondary sex charactaristics.
estrogens
function to prepare the female for breeding.
Progestin (progesterone)
involved in preparing the uterus for pregnancy.
prostaglandins
hormone like compounds that are organized into nine groups letters A-I. and act within the area they are produced.
erythropoietin
produced by the cells in the kidneys and released in response to tissue hypoxia and stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells.
gastrin
produced by stomach cells and stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.
secretin
produced by the small intestine and stimulates the gall bladder contraction and release of other digestive enzymes.
cholecystokinin (CCK)
produced by the small intestine and stimulates the gall bladder contraction and release of other digestive enzymes.
placenta
encloses the fetus during pregnancy and forms the interface between the fetal and maternal circulations.
chorionic gonadotrophin
funcions in maintenance of pregnancy and is secreted by the placenta.
thymus gland
secretes hormones thyomosin and thymopoitin which act to stimulate development of T-lymphocytes and strengthen the immune system.
pineal body
secretes melatonin.
melatonin
appears to play a role in regulation of sleep and wakefullness. may be related to amount of sunlight in the environment.