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82 Cards in this Set

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Apex
most caudoventral part of the heart, always formed by the left ventricle (and having a "tip")
Base
the hilus of the organ facing dorsocranially. (it is the broad "top" of the heart) it receives the great veins and sends out the great arteries.
Right atrium
Seen from the right side of the heart, with the venae cavae entering it
Left Atrium
The chamber into which the pulmonary veins empty
Right Ventricle
Makes up most of the heart on the right side, below the coronary groove. It "wraps" around the cranial side of the heart to continue as the pulmonary trunk
Septum (interventricular septum)
the wall separating the ventricles
Auricles
the ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart.
formerly, the atrium of the heart.
The arteries encircling the base of the heart like a crown. These are the first branches off the aorta.
Coronary arteries
The valve between the conus of the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk. It is similar to the aortic valve, but of lighter construction.
Pulmonary Valve (semilunar)
The three semilunar cusps attached to the aortic fibrous ring in the origin of the aorta.
Aortic Valve (semilunar)
The fibroserous sac enclosing the heart; composed fo the fibrous and serous pericardium covered by mediastinal (pericardiac) pleura
Pericardium
lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium (considered a wall). It reflects onto the surface of the heart as the visceral layer.
Parietal serous pericardium
the serosa on the mediastinum; part of the mediastinal pleura on either side of the pericardium
Pericardial Mediastinal pleura
a serous membrane forming a closed cavity. It covers the heart (visceral layer) and lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardial sac (parietal layer)
serous pericardium
lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium. it reflects onto the surface of the hears as the visceral layer.
parietal layer
a thin layer of mesothelium covering the surface of the heart. The epicardium is the visceral layer of the serous pericardium. covers the myocardium of the heart closely.
visceral layer (epicardium)
a potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of serous pericardium. It has approx. 1ml of yellow fluid btwn the layers which acts as a lubricant to allow the heart freedom of movement during contraction. Other serous body cavities have almost no fluid.
pericardial cavity
a thin mesotheial layer lining the atria and ventricles. This layer is continuous with the endothelium lining the great vessels entering and leaving the heart
endocardium
also known as the tricuspid valve, operates the right AV opening. There are only 2 major cusps (parietal and septal) in the dog, with intervening secondary cusps. In man and other domestic species there are 3 major cusps (angular, parietal and septal) thus "tri-".
right atrioventricular valve
similar to the right AV valve, but has a heavier construction due to greater pressure of the left ventricle during contraction (systole). (A miter is a two cusp hat worn by bishops in the Catholic church. Someone thought they looked like the left AV valve, hence mitral)
left atrioventricular valve
(tendinous cords) the though strands anchoring the free edges of the atrioventricular (AV) valves to the papillary muscles and preventing eversion of the valve leaflets into the atrium upon ventricular contraction (systole)
chordae tendineae
the muscular projections serving as attachments for the tendinous cords (chordae tendineae) of the atrioventricular (AV) valves.
papillary muscles
Linguofacial artery; branches of the external carotid artery. The facial artery winds around the ventral border of the mandible to supply the face. Also known as separate lingual and facial arteries
facial artery
Maxillary and linguofacial veins join to form the external jugular vein. The external jugular veins and subclavian veins join to form the brachiocephalic vein in carnivores and pigs. The brachiocephalic veins then join to form the cranial vena cava. In horses & ruminants the external jugular veins and subclavian veins join to form the cranial vena cava.
facial vein
The direct continuation of the external carotid artery to the space below the orbit (the pterygopalatine fossa). Its branches supply the orbit, teeth, chin nose, nasal cavity and palate.
maxillary artery
Maxillary and linguofacial veins join to form the external jugular vein. The external jugular veins and subclavian veins join to form the brachiocephalic vein in carnivores and pigs. The brachiocephalic veins then join to form the cranial vena cava. In horses & ruminants the external jugular veins and subclavian veins join to form the cranial vena cava.
maxillary vein
The great artery leaving the left ventricle and arching caudally. It sends oxygenated blood from the left heart to the heart itself and to the rest of the body through its systemic branches.
aorta
The continuation of the ascending aorta, it sends branches to the head, neck and thoracic limbs
aortic arch
the part of the aorta caudal to the aortic arch, divided into the thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta by the diaphragm.
descending aorta
the initial part of the aorta, originating from the left ventricle at the center of the heart's base
ascending aorta
Ascend the neck to supply the head, face and brain.
Dogs-arise separately; ungulates (hooved animals) - arise by a short, common bicarotid trunk
common cartoid artery - right and left
supply the neck, thoracic limb and the cranial portion of the thoracic wall. Each has many branches: Vertebral artery, Costocervical trunk, Cuperficial cervical artery, internal thoracic artery.
subclavian artery - right and left
The arteries encircling the base of the heart like a crown. These are the first branches off the aorta. The right coronary artery originates from the right aortic sinus. It courses cranially under the right auricle and then to the right in the coronary groove. In some species it continues as the subsinuousal interventricular branch (horse and pig).
The left coronary artery arising from the left aortic sinus, it courses to the left under the left auricle and immediately branches into descending (paraconal) and encircling (circumflex) branches. In some species, the circumflex branch, after reaching the heart's right side, descends as the subsinuosal interventricular branch.
coronary artery - right and left
continuation of the axillary artery on the medial aspect of the arm. It continues as the median artery in the forearm after giving off the common interosseous artery
brachial artery
Usually arises from the median artery
ulnar artery
The continuation of the brachial artery past the common interosseous arterhy. It courses distally with the median nerve on the medial side of the forearm under the flexor carpi radialis muscle. The median artery is the largest artery in the manus in all the domestic species, except the cat (its main supply is the radial artery)
median artery
runs cranial to the median artery on the radius
radial artery
a portion of the cervical fascia enclosing the carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus nerve.
Carotid Artery (contained in carotid sheath)
two branches of the pulmonary trunk carrying blood to the lungs; one to the right lung, one to the left lung
Pulmonary artery
The direct continuation of the subclavian artery past the first rib to supply the thoracic limb. It supplies the structures of the shoulder and continues as the brachial artery in the arm.
axillary arteries
First branch of the arch of the aorta. As its name implies, it extends cranially to supply the right limb, neck and head. The brachiocephalic trunk gives off the left common carotid artery and then terminates in the right common carotid and right subclavian artery.
brachiocephalic artery (brachiocephalic truck)
a branch of the subclavian artery it arises medially to the costocervical trunk. Traveling with the vertebral nerve toward the neck, they enter the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae. The vertebral artery usually arises before the costocervical trunk.
cervical vertebral arteries
The first visceral branch of the abdominal aorta, arising unpaired between the crura of the diaphragm. It terminates as the hepatic, splenic and left gastric arteries supplying the cranial part of the GI tract.
celiac artery
The largest visceral branch of the abdominal aorta, arising just caudal to the origin of the celiac artery. It courses caudoventrally in the mesentery to supply most of the intestines.
cranial mesenteric artery
originating from the aorta caudal to the cranial mesenteric artery and pass each kidney
renal arteries
The convoluted artery supplying the ovary and arising from the abdominal aorta.
ovarian artery
The convoluted artery supplying the testicle and arising from the abdominal aorta.
testicular artery
third and last unpaired branch arises from the caudal aorta and passes in the mesocolon to supply the descending colon and rectum. Smallest unpaired major branch of the abdominal aorta
Caudal Mesenteric Artery
The unpaired terminal branch of the aorta that passes on mid line below the sacrum.
Median Sacral Artery
The main blood supply to the uterus. It arises differently in the different species.
Uterine Artery
the continuation of the external iliac artery through the femoral triangle, passing distally to continue as the popliteal artery caudal to the stifle joint
Femoral Artery
arises from the femoral artery in the femoral triangle. It passes subcutaneously with the medial saphenous vein and saphenous nerve on the medial thigh. Past the stifle it divides into cranial and caudal branches in the carnivores and horse
Saphenous Artery
the continuation of the femoral artery after the caudal femoral artery. Passing btwn the 2 heads of the gastrocnemisus muscle, it branches into cranial and caudal tibial aa.
Popliteal Artery
passes through the interosseous space and then distally on the cranial surface of the crus with the deep branch of the fibular nerve
Caranial Tibial Artery
The direct continuation of the cranial tibial artery over the flexor surface of the tarsus
Dorsal Pedal Artery
are formed by the anastomoses of ventral intercostal artery of the internal thoracic and musculophrenic aa. and the dorsal intercostal a. of the costocervical trunk and aorta. They pass on the caudal border of the ribs in the intercostal spaces with like named veins and nerves.
Intercostal Arteries
any artery of the usu. 4 pairs that arise from the back of the aorta opposite the lumbar vertebrae and supply the muscles of the loins
Lumbar Arteries
the large terminal branches of the caudal aorta near the caudal mesenteric artery that pass to the pelvic limbs.
External iliac arteries
the termination of the aorta passing to supply the viscera of the pelvis and part of the hip and thigh
internal iliac arteries
The large vein in the neck returning blood from the head to the heart. Empties into the brachiocephalic vein in carnivores and pigs; directly into the cranial vena cava in ruminants and horses
External Jugular Vein
A single vein arising in the abdomen as a branch of the ascending lumbar vein. It passes upward through the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm into the thorax, then along the right side of the vertebral column to the level of the 4th thoracic vertebra, where it turns and enters the superior vena cava.
Azygos Vein
The major lymphatic vessel draining the entire body, except the right thoracic limb, right cranial thorax, and right side of the neck. It begins at the cisterna chyli, passes through the aortic hiatus cranally on the right side between the azygos vein and the aorta. Passing to the left side of the thorax in the cranial mediastinum, it empties near the thoracic inlet (venous angle) into the jugular vein or the cranial vena cava.
Thoracic Duct
Great vessle emptying into the cranial or caudal part of the right atrium. Cranial returns blood from the head, neck thoracic limbs and cranial part of the wall of the thoracic cavity. The caudal part returns blood to the heart fromt he abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limbs
Vena Cava-cranial & caudal
arises fro the digital veins on the palmar aspect of the paw. It extends proximally around the medial side of the forearm just above the carpus to reach the cranial surface of the limb. Here it is joined by the accessory cephalic vein
cephalic vein
arises fromt he digital veins on the dorsal surface of the paw. It extends proximally to join the cephalic vein above the carpus in the carnivores and ox and near the elbow in the horse
accessory cephalic vein
the large vein carrying essentially all the blood from the abdominal viscera to the liver and its internal sinusoids. Hepatic veins located inside the liver, return to the caudal vena cava
portal vein
The internal iliac vein (hypogastric vein) begins near the upper part of the greater sciatic foramen, passes upward behind and slightly medial to the hypogastric artery and, at the brim of the pelvis, joins with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein.
internal iliac vein
The external iliac veins are large veins that connect the femoral veins to the common iliac veins. Their origin is at the inferior margin of the inguinal ligaments and they terminate when they join the internal iliac veins (to form the common iliac veins).
external iliac vein
a vein that accompanies the femoral artery in the same sheath; a continuation of the popliteal vein; becomes the external iliac vein
femoral vein
The saphenous vein runs from the body down the
inside of the rear leg and then crosses to the outside
of the leg above the hock Above the hock
the vein runs diagonally across the leg, where it
is easier to see. It is best to shave this area in the
same manner as the cephalic vein.
Saphenous Vein-Medial and Lateral-pulse site
just caudal to lateral canthus of eye in horse
Linguofacial artery- pulse site
facial just under the neck
Maxillary artery-pulse site
in the forearm dorsal side
Median Sacral artery-pulse site
inside hind leg
Femoral artery-pulse site
elbow area
Brachial artery-pulse site
inside hind leg
Femoral vein-venipuncture site
in dog most common site forearm area
cephalic vein-venipuncture site
outside hind leg - 3rd most common site in dogs- poor choice
lateral saphenous vein-venipuncture site
2nd most common choice, neck
jugular vein-venipuncture site
one of the 3 shunts in the fetal circulation- arterial duct the shunt between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta, diverting most of the blood from the pulmonary trunk (pulmonic circulation) to the aorta (systemic circulation)
Ductus arteriosus
the arterial duct doesn't close after birth. This should be corrected early through a left intercostal incision throught the 4th intercostal space. The ductus is carefully isolated and ligated.
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
one of the 3 shunts in the fetal circulation-the fetal shunt from the unbilical vein directly through the liver to the caudal vena cava, bypassing the liver sinusoids.
Ductus venosus